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Eating disorders

While nearly two out of three US adults struggle with issues related to being overweight, a smaller, but significant, portion of the population has eating disorders that typically result in being normal weight or underweight. Often, these individuals are fearful of gaining weight. Individuals who suffer from bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa face many adverse health consequences (Mayo Clinic, 2012a, 2012b).

People suffering from bulimia nervosa    engage in binge eating behavior that is followed by an attempt to compensate for the large amount of food consumed. Purging the food by inducing vomiting or through the use of laxatives are two common compensatory behaviors. Some affected individuals engage in excessive amounts of exercise to compensate for their binges. Bulimia is associated with many adverse health consequences that can include kidney failure, heart failure, and tooth decay. In addition, these individuals often suffer from anxiety and depression, and they are at an increased risk for substance abuse (Mayo Clinic, 2012b). The lifetime prevalence rate for bulimia nervosa is estimated at around 1% for women and less than 0.5% for men (Smink, van Hoeken,&Hoek, 2012).

As of the 2013 release of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fifth edition , Binge eating disorder is a disorder recognized by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Unlike with bulimia, eating binges are not followed by inappropriate behavior, such as purging, but they are followed by distress, including feelings of guilt and embarrassment. The resulting psychological distress distinguishes binge eating disorder from overeating (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013).

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by the maintenance of a body weight well below average through starvation and/or excessive exercise. Individuals suffering from anorexia nervosa often have a distorted body image    , referenced in literature as a type of body dysmorphia, meaning that they view themselves as overweight even though they are not. Like bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa is associated with a number of significant negative health outcomes: bone loss, heart failure, kidney failure, amenorrhea (cessation of the menstrual period), reduced function of the gonads, and in extreme cases, death. Furthermore, there is an increased risk for a number of psychological problems, which include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and substance abuse (Mayo Clinic, 2012a). Estimates of the prevalence of anorexia nervosa vary from study to study but generally range from just under one percent to just over four percent in women. Generally, prevalence rates are considerably lower for men (Smink et al., 2012).

While both anorexia and bulimia nervosa occur in men and women of many different cultures, Caucasian females from Western societies tend to be the most at-risk population. Recent research indicates that females between the ages of 15 and 19 are most at risk, and it has long been suspected that these eating disorders are culturally-bound phenomena that are related to messages of a thin ideal often portrayed in popular media and the fashion world ( [link] ) (Smink et al., 2012). While social factors play an important role in the development of eating disorders, there is also evidence that genetic factors may predispose people to these disorders (Collier&Treasure, 2004).

A photograph shows a very thin model.
Young women in our society are inundated with images of extremely thin models (sometimes accurately depicted and sometimes digitally altered to make them look even thinner). These images may contribute to eating disorders. (credit: Peter Duhon)

Summary

Hunger and satiety are highly regulated processes that result in a person maintaining a fairly stable weight that is resistant to change. When more calories are consumed than expended, a person will store excess energy as fat. Being significantly overweight adds substantially to a person’s health risks and problems, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and other medical issues. Sociocultural factors that emphasize thinness as a beauty ideal and a genetic predisposition contribute to the development of eating disorders in many young females, though eating disorders span ages and genders.

Personal application question

Think about popular television programs on the air right now. What do the women in these programs look like? What do the men look like? What kinds of messages do you think the media is sending about men and women in our society?

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Questions & Answers

Why do I get upset when my girlfriend doesn't tell me she loves me back in front of her friends?
Apollo Reply
Do not depend on her, or don't hope just take care of her ..it doesn't matter that how much she love you..matter that how much you love her..
Kanzul
Because you're insecure, read "The Rational Male" by Rollo Tomassi if you want to make sure that you and your girlfriend are/remain satisfied in your relationship
Leon
and don't listen to Kanzul, don't be a pushover
Leon
may be you are suspicios if she stay around her male friends
Kanzul
Thank you both, yeah umm it makes sense that I'm insecure and yeah I mean I do love her alot the thing is it's not with her Male friends it's in general.
Apollo
But also what is considered a pushover so I can avoid that Leon
Apollo
what is this that a persom constantly saw dream from very early age till now nd saw same dream what is this
Tasneem Reply
Your soul
Candy
how
Tasneem
it is your inner being,it knows, your heart,inner spirit
Candy
dayshavoo
Candy
thank you
Tasneem
😊
Tasneem
samething keeps happening,repeat
Candy
why do I have dreams of my boyfriend boss
Nicole Reply
Because you love him and his memories. Or that you are reminded of him very often.
Jobin
There are some explanation why we have dream. It can be just your brain picking random memory in your brain when you sleep (eventhough we sleep our brain still working) and this random memory your brain pick out become your dream
Kelly
👍
Jobin
or this boss left an impression in you, but it doesn't necessarily mean you have a romantic feelings towards this person. Maybe this boss just do some random thing and it left an impression in your memory and you still think about it subconsciously when you sleep and it manifested itself in ur dream
Kelly
That is perfectly normal and no cause for worry. You might not want to tell your boyfriend though ;)
Leon
What do you think is the reason for your friends or the family members coming into the dreams especially wet dreams? And after that what's the feeling of the person?
Jobin
how to get rid of fearful avoidant issues
Alexsus Reply
Do you think that seminary student needs psychological studies?
Jobin Reply
I think it's best for high schoolers.. we all should be aware of what we are
Alexsus
Yes definitely, especially in an age like this were more and more I've observed students not knowing what they truly are and not knowing how to deal with psychological issues. Plus, it gives them the advantage of knowing how to deal with other people with different ideas and issues.
Tav
Absolutely. How would you be able to make any serious decisions in your life, when you are a mess and don't understand your feelings, motivation and reasoning behind this or that issue. Moreover, I think whether you are a seminary student or not, you should also be taught critical thinking skills.
Sofia
Thank you all
Jobin
whats is schizophrenia
mobile Reply
long-term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behavior, leading to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality and personal relationships into fantasy and delusion, and a sense of mental fragmentation.
Amber
What is burn out syndrome?
Jobin
Emotional and physical exhaustion which appears after a long period of stress.
Avram
what is social conflict
deen Reply
a conversation with someone & having conflict with .
Candy
Soory Guys hope you ar doing well Im in strong desire to get this kind of book INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY but ther cost is too and I'm not able to buy it If you see this announcement please I need soft copy even few please
jacobo
Anybody who is able to access this book just help even soft copy to saves me Im so soory
jacobo
Deen social conflict means misunderstand occurred among the people in a certain social context can be caused by poor governance
jacobo
what is top-notch?
Vi Reply
excellent? the best?
Travis
the very best.
Snuffles
best of something. above the expectation
Jem
something like expert level
Evil
zenith
Syed
Hi! what is introspection?
jacobo
the ultimate best.. of excellent quality
Melissa
honor and respect
Randall
Understanding
Candy
Hi! This book INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY I'm not able to buy anybody can help me even soft copy
jacobo
i want some pdf books who can help me
Google "libgen", you can download almost any book there. I can't send the link as links are blocked by the app
Leon
is there any website where I can get a true diagnosis of a personality disorder I think I may possess? I can't seek therapy due to insurance complications
Bailey Reply
Well most websites that offer actual medical diagnoses cost money or they will connect you to a doctor for some sort of meeting.
Elise
yeah I've been looking for a decent site for around a year now and that's all Ive found thank you
Bailey
Yeah it is quite hard to find a reliable site.
Elise
diagnosis couldn't get from a websites. you have to refer a doctors for a consultation.
Muhamad
please which site can I download child psychology textbook?
patience
Compare and contrast situational influences and dispositional influences and give an example of each. Explain how situational influences and dispositional influences might explain inappropriate behavior.
Babafemi Reply
please tell me about ethical consideration and research method
Its Reply
what is an ethical consideration that is what a search for my research is seeking out the truth what lies in the darkness and it's hidden by the light
Rev
Ethical consideration includes the risk of doing your research
Mary
***cirt.gcu.edu/research/developmentresources/tutorials/ethics
Amanda
as well as the research can not have lasting affects on the subjects.
Amanda
Is this live
Little
We as researchers should not harm the subjects of our research, be it the population under study or the selected sample. I think ethical consideration requires that we disclose as much as is practically possible about the requirements of the research to all concerned.
Abel
It is ethically sound also to to acknowledge others' findings wherever we reference them in our research because we are to build and grow the body of knowledge by building on the research others have done. This is my contribution.
Abel
What is CBT?
ANTONIO Reply
cognitive behavioral therapy
Joni
When they use this CBT?
zahir
what is cbt
Timothy
mostly used to help treat anxiety and depression related diagnosis. But it's used in other types of mental health issues.
Joni
cognitive behavioral therapy. As stated earlier in this discussion.
Joni
Thank yoi
zahir
Hello! Does anyone have access of these books or articles. (E.Fuller Torrey-Freudian Freud:The malignant effect of freud's theory on American Thought and culture) (Richard Webster-Why Freud was wrong:sin,science and psychoanalysis)?
Amina Reply
which of the following is show weak relationship between two variable a/0.27 b/0.80 c/-0.80 d/0.00
Nahom Reply
is 0.00 show the relationship between two variable weak
Nahom
why not -0.80 ?
Rabia
because -0.80 shows strong negative correlation between the variables
Simran
a/0.27 is correct option d/0.00 means there is no relationship.
King
hlo guys
Ishant
... 👋
what is this about? and what do the numbers mean?
Skylar
Some statistic calculations for relationship maybe
Yoselin
0.00 means there.s no relationship 0.00-0.30 shows a weak relationship 0.30-0.60 represents a moderate relationship from 0.60 to 1 it is a strong relationships. whether the sign is + or - does not influence what I just said. sooo which one shows a weak relationship? A/0.27
Alexandra
psychology is the science of brain and behaviour and mind
Rabia Reply
yes
AB

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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