# 2.3 Analyzing findings  (Page 4/47)

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## Causality: conducting experiments and using the data

As you’ve learned, the only way to establish that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables is to conduct a scientific experiment . Experiment has a different meaning in the scientific context than in everyday life. In everyday conversation, we often use it to describe trying something for the first time, such as experimenting with a new hair style or a new food. However, in the scientific context, an experiment has precise requirements for design and implementation.

## The experimental hypothesis

In order to conduct an experiment, a researcher must have a specific hypothesis    to be tested. As you’ve learned, hypotheses can be formulated either through direct observation of the real world or after careful review of previous research. For example, if you think that children should not be allowed to watch violent programming on television because doing so would cause them to behave more violently, then you have basically formulated a hypothesis—namely, that watching violent television programs causes children to behave more violently. How might you have arrived at this particular hypothesis? You may have younger relatives who watch cartoons featuring characters using martial arts to save the world from evildoers, with an impressive array of punching, kicking, and defensive postures. You notice that after watching these programs for a while, your young relatives mimic the fighting behavior of the characters portrayed in the cartoon ( [link] ).

These sorts of personal observations are what often lead us to formulate a specific hypothesis, but we cannot use limited personal observations and anecdotal evidence to rigorously test our hypothesis. Instead, to find out if real-world data supports our hypothesis, we have to conduct an experiment.

## Designing an experiment

The most basic experimental design involves two groups: the experimental group and the control group. The two groups are designed to be the same except for one difference— experimental manipulation. The experimental group    gets the experimental manipulation—that is, the treatment or variable being tested (in this case, violent TV images)—and the control group    does not. Since experimental manipulation is the only difference between the experimental and control groups, we can be sure that any differences between the two are due to experimental manipulation rather than chance.

In our example of how violent television programming might affect violent behavior in children, we have the experimental group view violent television programming for a specified time and then measure their violent behavior. We measure the violent behavior in our control group after they watch nonviolent television programming for the same amount of time. It is important for the control group to be treated similarly to the experimental group, with the exception that the control group does not receive the experimental manipulation. Therefore, we have the control group watch non-violent television programming for the same amount of time as the experimental group.

their is always a conflict in my mind when I want to make a choice or decision ,even in silly things in day to day life also ,what can I do to keep my mind stble
actually one of my frnd is dwelling very depressed and guilty for the mistake he done...how to make him overcome of such depression and guilty feel...
what is the reason makes him so depressed
Lanery
what is his expedition and what is the depressed. and is that what actually your friend did and get some mastake with it?
Asali
there's an anime that I've watched.. the plot is similar to his.. and what the other person do is that he gave him punishments (compensation for what's done) and told him he'd be forgiven for what he did.. though I don't know if it would really work for real..
Princeed
Depression causes a tendency to be in that state. Ask him politely Go very slowly with the person In though process. Focus on the way he is thinking You will find how and why he living in that state. Now you may little bit know the problem. Don't react promptly and dominantly. Be careful with tone.
Vinit
agreed
Princeed
The last discussion abt same sex relationship reached maximum no. of conversation..... so I'm writing here.
What are the consequences for someone of lgbt?
Tara
no... I haven't heard about any such things. @Tara Gutkin
Prasuta
consequences are.... society rejects.. family rejects... friendship & many other relations are lost
Prasuta
consequences are also between you and the other person.. it's either be proud or hide.. to stay or not.. base on the consequences that are on the line.. and how much these things put together.. it's their decision.. (you know, either be affected or not)
Princeed
oops sorry, I misread.. I thought it's "same sex relationship".. but hope you got the point
Princeed
yes.. u read right.. it's "same sex relationship" only.
Prasuta
what is the diferwnce between the to have a sex with someone else where you can get the sex about with is that effect with the relationship with your friend or other?
Asali
Asali
man..tbh, it took me minutes to understand your point.. I dun really know much about that topic but if ur gonna ask my opinion.. did u know the hook up culture?, I think that's similar to what ur talkin abt, well although to sex with FRIEND is like to have agreement w/ them.. but to other,.. casual?
Princeed
the conversation started in another conversation box.. and as that is overloaded so.. we are here to continue with it. @Adam.
Prasuta
In your country, your culture, how would you be penalized or possibly harmed for openly expressing your relationship/love for the same gender?
Tara
""consequences are.... society rejects.. family rejects... friendship & many other relations are lost""-- didnt see this. Is staying hidden for the rest of your life, something you would be okay with?
Tara
--the question itself is subjective--
Princeed
if I express my feelings for the same gender, most of the people will go against me, and I will become alone... and as it is illegal in my country.. so..the problem will be greater.. maximum problem will be mental pressure.
Prasuta
no... that I can't stay... at the present, I can't stay alone for a single day in my home... so, surely I can't stay alone for the rest of my life... I want someone
Prasuta
I recommend not to think about "it". but that'd be hard so I think making yourself positive and still doing your responsibilities eg. health,wealth,necessaries would help.. try not to focus so much on the problem.. and listen or read motivators and inspirations..
Princeed
ok... but most of the time I feel the need of someone. What should I do in that case?
Prasuta
well, I really feel that you're going on through something really hard right now (even though I don't know exactly).. I think youd be able to pass that, just like the lyric: "cause we all get lost sometimes you know, it's how we learn and how we grow"..just.. keep holdin' on.
Princeed
you said you need someone/a friend? I think you already got it.. count Tara for example..
Princeed
and wait! a friend suggested me to try "neargroup," an extension in the messenger app wherein you can talk to strangers near you.. and I got a new friend because of that.. just sharing
Princeed
Someone means.. not just frd... more than that...
Prasuta
ok...
Prasuta
If you need someone why don't you try dating apps? There are tons of apps for People who are homosexuals
Himshikha
why is this even a conversation
Luna
ok..
Prasuta
i have a highly functioning anxiety... i don't know how to overcome it now. it won't let me sleep and my heart is pounding hard.
Hi...I used to have panic attacks a work I can tell you what has helped for me in reversing my anxiety
Asia
yeah sure. i loved that. :<
janneth
believe it or not...Breathing and Meditation helped me...no medication...When you breath deeply it sends messages to your brain that everything is okay therefore your thoughts will align ..I researched proper breathing that helped tremendously
Asia
I'll try that right now. 😭 Thank you very much. You are appreciated.
janneth
anxiety can occur from overthinking and/ or sensory over stimulation..therefore meditation can allow you to free your thoughts without over thinking and judgement ...while providing peace of mind I still practice this daily when I wake up or before bed and really helps me
Asia
you can research breathing first....(the ted talk videos helped me) then meditation as they work hand and hand..hope this helps❤
Asia
physically smiling helps in the same way as breathing
juan
Hi...I am a junior in college for psychology..however in 100% honesty I lack basic knowledge in other areas ..are there any practical Specific recommendations for just General Knowledge
what
Ylal
im asking for specific recommendations for general knowledge
Asia
hlo
Tejinder
hey
janneth
Hi Lanery, I understand what you are going through and it is not an easy process
Asia
i feel u but u should go to therapist that would help better
imen
hey hey... just cheer up guys... what is the cause of your depression Lanery..
sunny
since depression is a psychologicial state..My suggestion would be very basic elements of self care as a first step.Proper rest preferably 8 hours, Eating healthy and exercise... little by little these elements contribute to a healthy mind
Asia
I can relate to depression and this is the major element in what got me through it...From a psychological standpoint the mind takes in elements of self care as self love ...this is when the thoughts process of self love will soon follow and create a cycle of positive thoughts into positive behaviors
Asia
and vice versa
Asia
Im fine with writing but have a severe difficulty in articulating throughts verbally...what can this be and what can I do about it?
ya me too facing same problem ,I get great thoughts but while writing I can't express them as I thought
Rajesh
oh yeah? I wonder what that it is ?...for me its an issue with speaking...but maybe that have a psychological connection between the two
Asia
hi I havw no problems write but have a severe difficulty in articulating my thoughts through speech? what could this be and what can I do about it?
i had this proplem too but i was trying to read lowdly and that helped me i hope it would help u too
imen
I see
Asia
I have a speech problem though
Asia
you mean you would read outloud ?
Asia
Meditation, journaling means write down ur thoughts n feelings in dairy, reading loudly as suggested.. N give a break before speaking so tht u can think before.. N speak comfortably not instantly like on slow note!!
Lakshika
yes that's it i read newspaper or books outlowd nd that gave the courage to pronounce very well beside i correct my mistakes
imen
when did psychology start?
2008
Joe
sorry to interupt. i'd like to ask, what do we call this app we're using? i don't have any idea it just pops up on may notification
janneth
psychology
Richard
to my knowledge
Richard
so is it the same app we're using to study some psychological terms? like it comes out with a sort of a messaging thing?
janneth
hello
shaima
how could i better my future in psychology?
shaima
it's an app with some psychology content along with chat facility to share and discuss ideas and doubts.
sunny
1859 wilhelim wundt
Tejinder
Shaima... you can do it just by learning only..
sunny
I see. How do we come to the chat facility of this app? Where can we find it?
janneth
you will find one block space..at the end of each topic.. 1st you should read one topic and then you can ask questions at end where they have given some space..then people will get pop-up of your question, they will share their answer or view.
sunny
i see. thank you so much! :) sorry for the inconvenience i might have caused.
janneth
Not at all... you made some of my time a bit productive... My pleasure
sunny
Aw. thanks again.
janneth
haha...:-) that's fine. Are you a psychology student ?
sunny
yes. i am a freshman psych student. :)
janneth
imen
yea sure
janneth
im English dtudent and i have pschology modulei have problem of realizing how to revize it even though i love psychology
imen
could u give some instructions that would help me to get a good mark
imen
just as much as i want to help you, i'm afraid to say that i don't know yet how am i suppose to respond here (my thoughts maybe wrong so yeah). Maybe some of fellas here could help you. I wish you goodluck!
janneth
thank you i apreciate that
imen
hello plz some one help me with note on need theory...
I have a friend whose so close to me we attend the same university but on knowing to me she meets my friends and talk bad about me. sometime she says she prefers others to me. with this kind of behaviour how should I relate with her
Everyone you call Friend are not..it's something about you she's jealous of..to be clear "something" doesn't mean always mean things...could be the the way your 👪/ Friends love you..your Intelligence, the way you smile, etc.She is Not your friend, she's an" associate" so treat her as such..
Monroe
i have a big dream about my future . but ,my laziness is not permit me to realize them. iam a university under graduate 1st year student. but my hand writing is very bad. i train to improve it from more institution and my self. this my laziness and bad hand writing is a barrier in front of my dream.
hi am also under gradute 1st year student i am too having lazyness but controlling slowly from 8months my answer to your question is write a note on your why u your getting lazyness and what thoughts u got when ur lazy and write your dream or goal in your room where u can see every time
hari
hari
but one thing when you have big dream or big goal and you have confidence then you will find a way not a excuse think about it, soultion will be in your mind
hari
Being lazy!! It is not this attribute which falling u back. For eg. It is not the alarm which wakes u up.. It is ur responsibilities!!! The day when u accept ur responsibility toward ur passions n dreams, you'll eventually see laziness as a setback n overcome it unknowingly !!!
Lakshika
but my hand writing?
shaima
how i built a better future with confidence etc.
shaima
im a writer and alot of my inspiration comes from soceity and its self can u give me some pointers because ive found my gift
Toni
and i study psychology to widen my views
Toni
thank you hari and lakshika
shaima
iam more train to improve my hand writing in many institutions and my self . but it is very bad always . hand writing is very important role in university examination . because of this i get less mark . so , it is barrier in front of my mark scoring. so could you please help me to improve my
shaima
hand writing
shaima
ok toni
shaima
first, ask yourself if you Really wanna change and.. WHY if so.. start with the mindset that you can do anything and everything..or at least you CAN do it.. then start by making things that makes you go out of your comfort zone (low intensity at first then gradually increase).. remember:your mind
Princeed
but iam more and more try
shaima
in many institutions and myself many years
shaima
remember: your mind(is not always your best friend) is protecting you from possible harms and so it wants you to be comfortable.. and that also connects to why we don't want change especially drastic change in such a small amount of time. my point is..since you've already tried some methods and..
Princeed
and none of it seems to work.. then start with a different mindset, take your time, as they say,"life's not a sprint but a marathon".. do things with your genuine attention and focus, do one aspect of it one at a time and listen or read about different motivators and inspirations.. and lastly, it's
Princeed
and lastly, it's important to know that your surroundings or environment can affect you, REALLY. "if you want something,you gotta make effort for it" -me P.s. sorry for my comment's length.. and remember... YOU ARE AWESOME
Princeed
it is not problem
shaima
shaima
i hope you teach me more valuable points that help in my life
shaima
thank you princeed
shaima
yeah, you're welcome
Princeed
why people suddenly bust into tears in nights or middle of the night?
did they laugh uncontrollably to?
Richard
how long have they been doing this?
Richard
Well people are more sensitive after dark, if they burst that means that what they gather (sentiments, ideas, feelings, etc...) are way to much for them and they need a realise... crying products endorphine that make you feel better...
Dani
people are more sensitive after dark? Who told you that?
Richard
is the relaxation Of The body that gets redy for sleep, you are been more relaxed
Dani
yeah ok!
Richard
Can one truly stop loving the person whom they are emotionally attached to?
listen to td Jakes emotionally abandoned on YouTube
Alexsus
How can someone be the best version of themself?
Best for themselves doesn't guarantee best for other people, so just try be who we are and what best we consider to ourselves to do regardless what other people will say about it.
Hindun
The Golden Rule plus The Commandments.. Wake up & just be without any limitations
Monroe
act like the person you want to be. small steps. don't be fake.
Alexsus
to thy own self be true
Richard
the projection of your truth requires the full throttle of pure and authentique bravery " fortune favors the bold"
Zackaria
be making youre self better all the time.
non
don't forget the couragous
Richard
be without limitations... my old sensi loved that frase lol
Richard
wishes he thought it first lol
Richard
First realise what you are, the real you. Start researching on 'who am I' and when you realize the real you u achieved the real knowledge and you become confident and fearless more over u won't get bored on yourself. You can make better decisions in ur career and life when you realize yourself.
Arjun
Richard
psychology
Richard
continuous learning and experiement things and gain more experience. life is all about experiments and experiences.
Arjun