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A line provides Wavelength in nanometers for “400,” “500,” “600,” and “700” nanometers. Within this line are all of the colors of the visible spectrum. Below this line, labeled from left to right are “Cosmic radiation,” “Gamma rays,” “X-rays,” “Ultraviolet,” then a small callout area for the line above containing the colors in the visual spectrum, followed by “Infrared,” “Terahertz radiation,” “Radar,” “Television and radio broadcasting,” and “AC circuits.”
Different wavelengths of light are associated with our perception of different colors. (credit: modification of work by Johannes Ahlmann)

Sound waves

Like light waves, the physical properties of sound waves are associated with various aspects of our perception of sound. The frequency of a sound wave is associated with our perception of that sound’s pitch    . High-frequency sound waves are perceived as high-pitched sounds, while low-frequency sound waves are perceived as low-pitched sounds. The audible range of sound frequencies is between 20 and 20000 Hz, with greatest sensitivity to those frequencies that fall in the middle of this range.

As was the case with the visible spectrum, other species show differences in their audible ranges. For instance, chickens have a very limited audible range, from 125 to 2000 Hz. Mice have an audible range from 1000 to 91000 Hz, and the beluga whale’s audible range is from 1000 to 123000 Hz. Our pet dogs and cats have audible ranges of about 70–45000 Hz and 45–64000 Hz, respectively (Strain, 2003).

The loudness of a given sound is closely associated with the amplitude of the sound wave. Higher amplitudes are associated with louder sounds. Loudness is measured in terms of decibels (dB) , a logarithmic unit of sound intensity. A typical conversation would correlate with 60 dB; a rock concert might check in at 120 dB ( [link] ). A whisper 5 feet away or rustling leaves are at the low end of our hearing range; sounds like a window air conditioner, a normal conversation, and even heavy traffic or a vacuum cleaner are within a tolerable range. However, there is the potential for hearing damage from about 80 dB to 130 dB: These are sounds of a food processor, power lawnmower, heavy truck (25 feet away), subway train (20 feet away), live rock music, and a jackhammer. The threshold for pain is about 130 dB, a jet plane taking off or a revolver firing at close range (Dunkle, 1982).

This illustration has a vertical bar in the middle labeled Decibels (dB) numbered 0 to 140 in intervals of 20 from the bottom to the top. To the left of the bar, the “sound intensity” of different sounds is labeled: “Hearing threshold” is 0; “Whisper” is 30, “soft music” is 40, “Risk of hearing loss” is 110, “pain threshold” is 130, and “harmful” is 140. To the right of the bar are photographs depicting “common sound”: At 20 decibels is a picture of rustling leaves; At 60 is two people talking, at 80 is a car, at 90 is a food processor, at 120 is a music concert, and at 130 are jets.
This figure illustrates the loudness of common sounds. (credit "planes": modification of work by Max Pfandl; credit "crowd": modification of work by Christian Holmér; credit "blender": modification of work by Jo Brodie; credit "car": modification of work by NRMA New Cars/Flickr; credit "talking": modification of work by Joi Ito; credit "leaves": modification of work by Aurelijus Valeiša)

Although wave amplitude is generally associated with loudness, there is some interaction between frequency and amplitude in our perception of loudness within the audible range. For example, a 10 Hz sound wave is inaudible no matter the amplitude of the wave. A 1000 Hz sound wave, on the other hand, would vary dramatically in terms of perceived loudness as the amplitude of the wave increased.

Of course, different musical instruments can play the same musical note at the same level of loudness, yet they still sound quite different. This is known as the timbre of a sound. Timbre refers to a sound’s purity, and it is affected by the complex interplay of frequency, amplitude, and timing of sound waves.

Summary

Both light and sound can be described in terms of wave forms with physical characteristics like amplitude, wavelength, and timbre. Wavelength and frequency are inversely related so that longer waves have lower frequencies, and shorter waves have higher frequencies. In the visual system, a light wave’s wavelength is generally associated with color, and its amplitude is associated with brightness. In the auditory system, a sound’s frequency is associated with pitch, and its amplitude is associated with loudness.

Personal application question

If you grew up with a family pet, then you have surely noticed that they often seem to hear things that you don’t hear. Now that you’ve read this section, you probably have some insight as to why this may be. How would you explain this to a friend who never had the opportunity to take a class like this?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

what are the personality disorders
Nigel Reply
go to google!write it.
Diferent
attachments that get a variety of goals done
Jose Reply
some goals have more than one checkpoint
Jose
true
miss
true everything is like root. you need to split your goal to make tree stand straight.
wish
true
ali
yes true
Touch
im on chp emotion and motivition
Jose Reply
hm
ali
that point was deep, motionable.
Jose
what
miss
thoughts can have momentum to them. . . hmm just jotting
Jose
a single goal has many checkpoints, demomstrating reasonable courage through each, with a change in conscious attitude. . . stability goals.
Jose
self encouragement
Jose
motivations(reasons) that help maintain balanced good character
Jose
who has father of modern psychology?
pravin Reply
I have him and you can get him back for 100 million :)
Himshikha
who was the father of modern psychology?
pravin
Sigmund Freud
vishav
it's true vashav?
pravin
tnx
pravin
The "Father of modern psychiatry". Philippe Pinel's "release from chains" of 1793 and the beginning of the "science of psychiatry"]. 
ali
Freud is the father of modern Psychology that's what my batcholrs and masters in psychology taught me
Pradeep
follow books not Google
Pradeep
not everything is in your books, captian.
juan
What are some good books for a beginner in Criminal Psychology?
Nick
start in forensics
Rick
but you got to start off in psych 1200 it may give you a different direction in which to go. so many branches
Rick
in any case best of luck to you...are you looking for profiling?
Rick
david v canter forensic psychology for dummies!Nick.
Diferent
How dose stress differ from someone with dimincha an without dimincha
Zack Reply
I don't know Zack ,but they say talking to yourself is ok ,but awnsering your self is a bad thing.😂
Zack
what is the pre scientific psychology?
Lusia Reply
psychology that used "introspection" to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. Functionalism. a school ofpsychology that focused on how mental and behavior processes function - how they enable and allow organisms to adapt, survive, and flourish.
ali
was the belief in god and the state of mind, the various religions! The psychological psychology lab was founded in 1879, but as a serious science, brain work began to be successful when anti-depressant characters and antipsychotic drugs were discovered!
Diferent
but angels this is history after being psychological science itself!
Diferent
expert through realistic history
Jose
hi friends......... i have a confusion about the question
shaima Reply
which one friend?
Jose
What is trephination
Monica Reply
skinning of the skull! It was used earlier when science is not advanced! is still rarely used, the reason for filling the brain with oxygen, depression etc
Diferent
how to overcome anxiety
Swapnodeep Reply
how to overcome fear of people
Swapnodeep
exposure and meditation(im not a trained professional lol but it helped me) ask yourself why you are scared
juan
couldn't agree more Juan Roa exposure is the best thing if your scared or nervous to do something you.should do it because it tempary and you'll over come it when you get through the discomfort to a new comfort it's all about stages you grow through in life
Michael
You learn to accept the good and the bad and power through the obstacles to make you stronger.
Kathy
Life is a constant learning curve based on your experiences...
Kathy
and your reactions, good or bad to those experiences.
Kathy
listen to frequency
God
what are the kinds of Psychologists and which one can easy and interesting?
Jaswanth Reply
how to be an active listener?
Pritszel Reply
***en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_listening
Anindya
Pls go through
Anindya
make an eye contact and you can nod that you are listening
Matúš
also body language is important
Matúš
not a credible source
Maria
ok thanks..
Pritszel
hi! i am a person of 21 yeard of age. i want to start a business. but now i have to face a problem which. to be honest banking problem, i am not sure but within a month the problem may start. and if started i may get some mental stress. experts please help me on this to deal.
Private Reply
None can avoid stress bt can learn to cope up with it.
Anindya
Follow a routine life, healthy diet and physical exercise. These things may hlp u
Anindya
pls be specific about the problem so we can know how to help you out
Glory
to be honest, father had taken loan of 18million and now is unable to pay the interest. bank is about to execute legal procedure. i feel like it may hamper on me and my career. but i dont want to quit. i want to run towards my dream but due to these problems i am not staying focused towards it.
Private
You should go and consult with a councellor regarding the issue
Anindya
should i work under pressure of take a rest for certain period of time and be normal again and start my career?
Private
Hello, what is your father's relationship with this business?
Diferent
my father has no any relation with my startup business currently. but the legal procedures from the bank(my name on national news paper along with photo and details) will surely somehow affect me. how can i get rid of it brcause i dont wanna quit, sooner or late i want to be something..
Private
this is not something tough for you! The craftsman's prejudices always exist, there will be different attitudes about this matter! Those who disagree, will appreciate the moment with you! Those who disagree, make public judgments, you have to have more confidence to cope too much!
Diferent
Many people give their family attitudes, if a family is not well-educated and prejudices, they get caught up with other people, if they want us to communicate and by email, I can help!
Diferent
Mr. private why you feel if started I may get mental stress ..... this is the first reason definitely I will get mental stress.... already you sended to your brain about this problem .....so at that time your brain automatically create stressful environment you don't know what happening around you
Chennakesavarao
hi different! thats not possible! but thank you. but i may need help. i would be greatfull if you can help me! how can i contact you? on email?
Private
hi gattu! please read all my problems.
Private
you will become zero knowledge person ..... listen i thought you have a great thinking power so fill your brain with positive thoughts you have a great life ahead this your first failure... don't blame your mind as you a failure person...
Chennakesavarao
and you said bank legal notice , my name with photo in national news channel ......this is the mostly worst and time westing thinking... people didn't remember you.... everyone has a lot of problems so didn't think about you and people only remember successful persons
Chennakesavarao
hi gattu! i prefer failing than quiting, because it teaches something that no one is capable to teach. i am about lose everything, and you agree or not, it definitely makes you feel stressed. no matter who the person is. i motivate people to calm. but is a problem only 1 in 1000s face.
Private
yeah you will contact through mail
Chennakesavarao
can I know about your business
Chennakesavarao
i have a business to start. not started yet. the things i have mentioned about losing is my dads business, property, house and all.
Private
Anyone to tlk abt defence mechanisms?
Anindya Reply
M not know about defence mechanics.. But i can do telepathy and knowledge of psychic power..
Harmanpreet
What type of power is tht?
Anindya
Its mind power..
Harmanpreet
With. Mind power u can do most of things.. Like u can communicate with anyone in the world only with your mind power.. U can send any mesg to a specific person.. Its is a feeling message..
Harmanpreet
we have ennumber of defence mechanism in psychology specially fredu and neo fraudian what u wanna discuss
Pradeep
A defense mechanism is a coping technique that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potential harmful impulses.
Maria
Some of them include: 1)Rationalization 2) Repression 3) Denial 4) Regression 5) Projection 6) Sublimation 7) Displacement
Maria
the list which Maria mam have noted is few common DM
Pradeep
Sigmund Freud's daughter, Anna Freud enumerated a total of ten defense mechanisms to help manage the internal components between the Id, ego and superego and reduce anxiety.
Maria
if u understand well about whole defence mechanism then dealing with clients will be more convenient
Pradeep
how to overcome fear of people.
Swapnodeep
Going through defence mechanisms. Vry interesting
Anindya Reply
I would do a literature research on that product. Looking at the scientific research. An looking at if it was a scam or not.
aemilius Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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