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The central route to persuasion works best when the target of persuasion, or the audience, is analytical and willing to engage in processing of the information. From an advertiser’s perspective, what products would be best sold using the central route to persuasion? What audience would most likely be influenced to buy the product? One example is buying a computer. It is likely, for example, that small business owners might be especially influenced by the focus on the computer’s quality and features such as processing speed and memory capacity.

The peripheral route is an indirect route that uses peripheral cues to associate positivity with the message (Petty&Cacioppo, 1986). Instead of focusing on the facts and a product’s quality, the peripheral route relies on association with positive characteristics such as positive emotions and celebrity endorsement. For example, having a popular athlete advertise athletic shoes is a common method used to encourage young adults to purchase the shoes. This route to attitude change does not require much effort or information processing. This method of persuasion may promote positivity toward the message or product, but it typically results in less permanent attitude or behavior change. The audience does not need to be analytical or motivated to process the message. In fact, a peripheral route to persuasion may not even be noticed by the audience, for example in the strategy of product placement. Product placement refers to putting a product with a clear brand name or brand identity in a TV show or movie to promote the product (Gupta&Lord, 1998). For example, one season of the reality series American Idol prominently showed the panel of judges drinking out of cups that displayed the Coca-Cola logo. What other products would be best sold using the peripheral route to persuasion? Another example is clothing: A retailer may focus on celebrities that are wearing the same style of clothing.

Foot-in-the-door technique

Researchers have tested many persuasion strategies that are effective in selling products and changing people’s attitude, ideas, and behaviors. One effective strategy is the foot-in-the-door technique (Cialdini, 2001; Pliner, Hart, Kohl,&Saari, 1974). Using the foot-in-the-door technique    , the persuader gets a person to agree to bestow a small favor or to buy a small item, only to later request a larger favor or purchase of a bigger item. The foot-in-the-door technique was demonstrated in a study by Freedman and Fraser (1966) in which participants who agreed to post small sign in their yard or sign a petition were more likely to agree to put a large sign in their yard than people who declined the first request ( [link] ). Research on this technique also illustrates the principle of consistency (Cialdini, 2001): Our past behavior often directs our future behavior, and we have a desire to maintain consistency once we have a committed to a behavior.

Photograph A shows a campaign button. Photograph B shows a yard filled with numerous signs.
With the foot-in-the-door technique, a small request such as (a) wearing a campaign button can turn into a large request, such as (b) putting campaigns signs in your yard. (credit a: modification of work by Joe Crawford; credit b: modification of work by "shutterblog"/Flickr)

A common application of foot-in-the-door is when teens ask their parents for a small permission (for example, extending curfew by a half hour) and then asking them for something larger. Having granted the smaller request increases the likelihood that parents will acquiesce with the later, larger request.

How would a store owner use the foot-in-the-door technique to sell you an expensive product? For example, say that you are buying the latest model smartphone, and the salesperson suggests you purchase the best data plan. You agree to this. The salesperson then suggests a bigger purchase—the three-year extended warranty. After agreeing to the smaller request, you are more likely to also agree to the larger request. You may have encountered this if you have bought a car. When salespeople realize that a buyer intends to purchase a certain model, they might try to get the customer to pay for many or most available options on the car.

Summary

Attitudes are our evaluations or feelings toward a person, idea, or object and typically are positive or negative. Our attitudes and beliefs are influenced not only by external forces, but also by internal influences that we control. An internal form of attitude change is cognitive dissonance or the tension we experience when our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are in conflict. In order to reduce dissonance, individuals can change their behavior, attitudes, or cognitions, or add a new cognition. External forces of persuasion include advertising; the features of advertising that influence our behaviors include the source, message, and audience. There are two primary routes to persuasion. The central route to persuasion uses facts and information to persuade potential consumers. The peripheral route uses positive association with cues such as beauty, fame, and positive emotions.

Personal application questions

Cognitive dissonance often arises after making an important decision, called post-decision dissonance (or in popular terms, buyer’s remorse). Describe a recent decision you made that caused dissonance and describe how you resolved it.

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Describe a time when you or someone you know used the foot-in-the-door technique to gain someone’s compliance.

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Questions & Answers

according to Freud ,unconscious thoughts are often revealed by
Yolanda Reply
nature of social psychology
TOUFIQ Reply
Good morning
Harrouche
Hey
Taylor
Hie
The
um hey?
Emiko
What is psychology
The
definition of social psychology
TOUFIQ Reply
social psychology is the understanding of persons behavior in society.
Nyta
And the behavior in groups
Mónika
why help or note help each other
Mónika
Another way of thinking of social psychology is as an ecology (society) specifically amongst humans (organisms)
J.
And also how an individual can impact society and also how society can influence individual
bright
but These are not definitions only Thomas🙆
Mónika
What is the course of anxiety disorder?
onoja Reply
because they belong into the positivism paradigm
miriamina Reply
what are you talking about
Himshikha
is anyone at the Greenwich university?
Despoina
Is there any information about them?
Tanam
Can I pursue MA clinical psychology after Btech?
Pranav Reply
yeah why not
NIkhil
happy birthday nidha
Urooj
Nikhil sir. can you recommend me good colleges and eligibility criteria?
Pranav
hi guys. I am new. I am from Turkey. My department is Psychologing Counselling at Istanbul University. I wonder where are you all you from in order to ask if it is possible for me to apply for a master degree in your countries .. This is my last term, and I want to go abroad so as to study, any help
Emre
?
Emre
I am from India.
Pranav
what is ego
Parvez
An ego is a person's self confidence, or self- importance. It doesn't become an issue until someone takes it to a level of over confidence. To translate a person who defines themselves more important then other's.
Kia
With an attitude of a higher standard.
Kia
arrogance is the word.
Kia
I love this app
Smayee Reply
what is sleep paralysis?
sejal Reply
what is lucid dreaming?
Bhoomika Reply
its a dream in which you are aware that you are dreaming.
Private
and you can even control and even manipulate the contents of your dream
Urooj
There are certain techniques to induce lucid dreams. try this app 'Lucid dreamer' it is very helpful.
Pranav
did this accidentally while i was at the hospital. i thought it's only 30 mins. but when i checked my clock its been 4 hrs already. it's mentally tiring tbh.
Bonito
Lucid dreaming is when you are conscious while sleeping. You sleep but you are aware that you are sleeping
Nikkhil
Its good for relaxation actually. But when you are conscious while dreaming, Your psychological ailments may affect your experience. If you are in good health mentally and physically, lucid dreaming can be a wonderful experience.
Pranav
How I can use the app
SNEHAL
it provides a timer, which is required time you take to go into REM sleep. after that it starts a certain sound which gently awakes u till u become conscious but not totally awake.
Pranav
Oky it means i need to set time i go to sleep
SNEHAL
you need to set time you take to go to REM sleep. that app will guide you further. Try researching method suitable for you
Pranav
Oky thanks
SNEHAL
welcome
Pranav
anyone experienced lucid dreaming here?
Mahesh
yeah i did
Private
I want to try
SNEHAL
but unexpectedly 😂😂
Private
I've experienced sleep paralysis and it's scary at first. Been too long since I had one. But need to experience lucid sleep yet. Sounds wonderful. Was thinking of trying maruijana to hit it
kamal
wht is solution of sleep paralysis. ?
sejal
Sorry bro. You can't have lucid dream by marijuana. and to overcome sleep paralysis just relax and go with the dream.
Pranav
So how to achieve it
kamal
Lucid dream
kamal
dont listen to pranav wadnere, its not that marijuana cant but if you dont smoke it wont help. also sleep paralysis is more than what we are told, the fact that its called sleep paralysis is to label it as just that, oh its just a little sleep paralysis no biggie. but fight fight fight, dont let in!
Rey
i struggled with it for years, since 2011 and it was so intense i couldnt sleep at night for fear of being attacked by demons/energy that was real and would present itself in different forms. i kept fighting against it untill one day i used my own energy to repel it and end my cycles of paralysis..
Rey
1) Perform reality checks. • habit yourself to check mirror, clock, and written texts throughout day. you can't see yourself in mirrors, can't read time and texts in dreams. • Try passing ur hand through ur palm. u can do it in lucid dreams. 2) Keep a dream journal 3) Practice meditation daily
Pranav
but I hv few experience in my sleep.. tht few animals attacked me and I try to move but I couldn't.. I literally scared to death.. I hv experienced it more often nowadays
sejal
permanent solution?
sejal
So you meant to say that to get in the state of lucid dreams we can use marijuana to achieve it
kamal
Hello to the discussion. When I had those parlzing dreams. I lived in a certian area and when I moved it stopped.
Shannon
They always said if you want to know if you are dreaming pinch yourself. Mirrors, clocks in dreams wow, now thats dreaming.
Shannon
Rey. Even I struggled a lot and so did my mom. But once I just let it in. I allowed the monster in(A female demon). As usual she was trying to choke me. But now I knew this is a dream. so I laughed out loud. The demon was ineffective. And meditation helped me a lot.
Pranav
but I couldn't move my body.. thts the problem.. for few minutes I m stoned ..I need help
sejal
Kamal I would advice you not you use marijuana If u aren't above 25. And such practices may allow u to achieve much better state of mind. but use of drugs can impact your mental stability.
Pranav
are you a frequent lucid dreamer?
Mahesh
Actually i am 29 now but it's been 16 months since I had an accident related to brain and since then I've become a changed personality. All my hobbies have changed even I've stopped watching movies. Must be because of my inability to focus on something for too long post accident. Really don't know.
kamal
you made a bad decision on letting them in😢, thats what the goal is, to go into your life and give you abilities/goods/comfort. the best way to take advantage of someone is to play it nice and offer them a twisted reality of good to keep the person hooked while they are taken advantage of.
Rey
my experience happend because i was becoming enlightened, the sleep paralysis was a fear tactic to shut me down. but instead pushed me to find inner power and wisdom. the last time i was awake and a light was coming out my chest, i pushed the demon with all my force,where it was right in my face.
Rey
after this it never bothered me again, to this day though i still think about what really was going on at the time. i have looked into different possibilities and at other peoples cases. my friends and some cousins have similar experiences but they dont understand what is going on, which is an issue
Rey
i wish to help people with, but what i learned is that its up to the indivisual what path they want to take. personaly i dont believe they are real demons attacking people, but energy that we carry with us from our surroundings and our own output. Pranav i think you found a different way to overcome
Rey
the attacks but not everyone can and shouldnt let them in.. you used your ability to change your perspective, giving you the power from god to denounce the energy and create a new power and wisdom growth, which is necessary for the change thats coming
Rey
when u respond consciously to life. Its really easy to get lucid dreams. But do not focus to much on lucid dreams as they are just dreams madeup by ur mind.
Pranav
importance of psychology
Ajumuka Reply
helping someone whose in need
Balqis
giving a huge hope to the not only the one community, but also all people on earth, maybe to whole universe.
Emre
Discovering the secrets behind cognition and the sense of self
Bogdan
discovering the secrets behind consciousness its self!
juan
a better understanding of the "why's " of a person's actions to better help them
Rachel
Hi,what is life-span prespective?
Roghayeh Reply
the estimated life spand of and individual or organision
Fire
life- span deals with the makeup of life. It's about understanding human development in every sense of the word. Just think about everything in the world being define. This is the study of overall.
Kia
thanks
Selman
thank u, stages of memory?
Roghayeh
incoding storage and retrival it
Fire
to keep it
jordan
what is the relevance of psychology to law?
Ajumuka Reply
psychology provide insights on the impact of laws in the lives of the citizens
Kyrie
it helps examine different areas of legal and social significance
MKumar
relevence of psychology is great in the legal system especially in psychopathology like the explaination of why tedd bundy did such gruesome acts and the explaination tbat what should be the rulling on such a person in such a case .....And also in cases generally for prisoners in prison..
Shafeeq
it plays an extremely important role in law..sometimes the difference between outright guilt or insanity
Rachel
discusse the behavioral an humanists of personality
Collins Reply
I'm having a little struggle understanding the topic
Connor
behavioralists and humanists I presume!
Urooj
which chap..?pg nmbr...
Shafeeq
it appears to be a depth check into the internal experience of whom you have found yourself to be, and wether it reflects what some people may have wished to find themselves being. the congruency vs incongruence seems a debate, Taoism vs motivation like "be better than you are!"
Connor
what is memory?!
yousaf
Hi, I'm pursuing my B A Psychology first year through Ambedkar open University I would like do internships about psychology or related fields. if any interns available in Chennai location let me know about that friends
Chennakesavarao Reply
Can someone please help me out with the humanistic theory?
onoja Reply
Humanistic, humanism and humanist are terms in psychology relating to an approach which studies the whole person, and the uniqueness of each individual. ... Sometimes the humanistic approach is called phenomenological. This means that personality is studied from the point of view of the individual's
Rushna
the humanistic theory is apsychology perspective that considers all people are inherently good .To reach the level of "goodness" every person must go through certain phases in life. (psychologenie.com)
Roghayeh
the humanistic theory is a group of diverse theories that share a holistic conceptualization that emphasis the uniqueness, value, dignity, and worth of each human being as an individual.
Oseke

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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