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Social anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder (formerly called social phobia) is characterized by extreme and persistent fear or anxiety and avoidance of social situations in which the person could potentially be evaluated negatively by others (APA, 2013). As with specific phobias, social anxiety disorder is common in the United States; a little over 12% of all Americans experience social anxiety disorder during their lifetime (Kessler et al., 2005).

The heart of the fear and anxiety in social anxiety disorder is the person’s concern that he may act in a humiliating or embarrassing way, such as appearing foolish, showing symptoms of anxiety (blushing), or doing or saying something that might lead to rejection (such as offending others). The kinds of social situations in which individuals with social anxiety disorder usually have problems include public speaking, having a conversation, meeting strangers, eating in restaurants, and, in some cases, using public restrooms. Although many people become anxious in social situations like public speaking, the fear, anxiety, and avoidance experienced in social anxiety disorder are highly distressing and lead to serious impairments in life. Adults with this disorder are more likely to experience lower educational attainment and lower earnings (Katzelnick et al., 2001), perform more poorly at work and are more likely to be unemployed (Moitra, Beard, Weisberg,&Keller, 2011), and report greater dissatisfaction with their family lives, friends, leisure activities, and income (Stein&Kean, 2000).

When people with social anxiety disorder are unable to avoid situations that provoke anxiety, they typically perform safety behaviors : mental or behavioral acts that reduce anxiety in social situations by reducing the chance of negative social outcomes. Safety behaviors include avoiding eye contact, rehearsing sentences before speaking, talking only briefly, and not talking about oneself (Alden&Bieling, 1998). Other examples of safety behaviors include the following (Marker, 2013):

  • assuming roles in social situations that minimize interaction with others (e.g., taking pictures, setting up equipment, or helping prepare food)
  • asking people many questions to keep the focus off of oneself
  • selecting a position to avoid scrutiny or contact with others (sitting in the back of the room)
  • wearing bland, neutral clothes to avoid drawing attention to oneself
  • avoiding substances or activities that might cause anxiety symptoms (such as caffeine, warm clothing, and physical exercise)

Although these behaviors are intended to prevent the person with social anxiety disorder from doing something awkward that might draw criticism, these actions usually exacerbate the problem because they do not allow the individual to disconfirm his negative beliefs, often eliciting rejection and other negative reactions from others (Alden&Bieling, 1998).

People with social anxiety disorder may resort to self-medication, such as drinking alcohol, as a means to avert the anxiety symptoms they experience in social situations (Battista&Kocovski, 2010). The use of alcohol when faced with such situations may become negatively reinforcing: encouraging individuals with social anxiety disorder to turn to the substance whenever they experience anxiety symptoms. The tendency to use alcohol as a coping mechanism for social anxiety, however, can come with a hefty price tag: a number of large scale studies have reported a high rate of comorbidity between social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder (Morris, Stewart,&Ham, 2005).

Questions & Answers

nature of social psychology
TOUFIQ Reply
Good morning
Harrouche
definition of social psychology
TOUFIQ Reply
social psychology is the understanding of persons behavior in society.
Nyta
And the behavior in groups
Mónika
why help or note help each other
Mónika
Another way of thinking of social psychology is as an ecology (society) specifically amongst humans (organisms)
J.
And also how an individual can impact society and also how society can influence individual
bright
but These are not definitions only Thomas🙆
Mónika
What is the course of anxiety disorder?
onoja Reply
because they belong into the positivism paradigm
miriamina Reply
what are you talking about
Himshikha
is anyone at the Greenwich university?
Despoina
Is there any information about them?
Tanam
Can I pursue MA clinical psychology after Btech?
Pranav Reply
yeah why not
NIkhil
happy birthday nidha
Urooj
Nikhil sir. can you recommend me good colleges and eligibility criteria?
Pranav
hi guys. I am new. I am from Turkey. My department is Psychologing Counselling at Istanbul University. I wonder where are you all you from in order to ask if it is possible for me to apply for a master degree in your countries .. This is my last term, and I want to go abroad so as to study, any help
Emre
?
Emre
I am from India.
Pranav
what is ego
Parvez
An ego is a person's self confidence, or self- importance. It doesn't become an issue until someone takes it to a level of over confidence. To translate a person who defines themselves more important then other's.
Kia
With an attitude of a higher standard.
Kia
arrogance is the word.
Kia
I love this app
Smayee Reply
what is sleep paralysis?
sejal Reply
what is lucid dreaming?
Bhoomika Reply
its a dream in which you are aware that you are dreaming.
Private
and you can even control and even manipulate the contents of your dream
Urooj
There are certain techniques to induce lucid dreams. try this app 'Lucid dreamer' it is very helpful.
Pranav
did this accidentally while i was at the hospital. i thought it's only 30 mins. but when i checked my clock its been 4 hrs already. it's mentally tiring tbh.
Bonito
Lucid dreaming is when you are conscious while sleeping. You sleep but you are aware that you are sleeping
Nikkhil
Its good for relaxation actually. But when you are conscious while dreaming, Your psychological ailments may affect your experience. If you are in good health mentally and physically, lucid dreaming can be a wonderful experience.
Pranav
How I can use the app
SNEHAL
it provides a timer, which is required time you take to go into REM sleep. after that it starts a certain sound which gently awakes u till u become conscious but not totally awake.
Pranav
Oky it means i need to set time i go to sleep
SNEHAL
you need to set time you take to go to REM sleep. that app will guide you further. Try researching method suitable for you
Pranav
Oky thanks
SNEHAL
welcome
Pranav
anyone experienced lucid dreaming here?
Mahesh
yeah i did
Private
I want to try
SNEHAL
but unexpectedly 😂😂
Private
I've experienced sleep paralysis and it's scary at first. Been too long since I had one. But need to experience lucid sleep yet. Sounds wonderful. Was thinking of trying maruijana to hit it
kamal
wht is solution of sleep paralysis. ?
sejal
Sorry bro. You can't have lucid dream by marijuana. and to overcome sleep paralysis just relax and go with the dream.
Pranav
So how to achieve it
kamal
Lucid dream
kamal
dont listen to pranav wadnere, its not that marijuana cant but if you dont smoke it wont help. also sleep paralysis is more than what we are told, the fact that its called sleep paralysis is to label it as just that, oh its just a little sleep paralysis no biggie. but fight fight fight, dont let in!
Rey
i struggled with it for years, since 2011 and it was so intense i couldnt sleep at night for fear of being attacked by demons/energy that was real and would present itself in different forms. i kept fighting against it untill one day i used my own energy to repel it and end my cycles of paralysis..
Rey
1) Perform reality checks. • habit yourself to check mirror, clock, and written texts throughout day. you can't see yourself in mirrors, can't read time and texts in dreams. • Try passing ur hand through ur palm. u can do it in lucid dreams. 2) Keep a dream journal 3) Practice meditation daily
Pranav
but I hv few experience in my sleep.. tht few animals attacked me and I try to move but I couldn't.. I literally scared to death.. I hv experienced it more often nowadays
sejal
permanent solution?
sejal
So you meant to say that to get in the state of lucid dreams we can use marijuana to achieve it
kamal
Hello to the discussion. When I had those parlzing dreams. I lived in a certian area and when I moved it stopped.
Shannon
They always said if you want to know if you are dreaming pinch yourself. Mirrors, clocks in dreams wow, now thats dreaming.
Shannon
Rey. Even I struggled a lot and so did my mom. But once I just let it in. I allowed the monster in(A female demon). As usual she was trying to choke me. But now I knew this is a dream. so I laughed out loud. The demon was ineffective. And meditation helped me a lot.
Pranav
but I couldn't move my body.. thts the problem.. for few minutes I m stoned ..I need help
sejal
Kamal I would advice you not you use marijuana If u aren't above 25. And such practices may allow u to achieve much better state of mind. but use of drugs can impact your mental stability.
Pranav
are you a frequent lucid dreamer?
Mahesh
Actually i am 29 now but it's been 16 months since I had an accident related to brain and since then I've become a changed personality. All my hobbies have changed even I've stopped watching movies. Must be because of my inability to focus on something for too long post accident. Really don't know.
kamal
you made a bad decision on letting them in😢, thats what the goal is, to go into your life and give you abilities/goods/comfort. the best way to take advantage of someone is to play it nice and offer them a twisted reality of good to keep the person hooked while they are taken advantage of.
Rey
my experience happend because i was becoming enlightened, the sleep paralysis was a fear tactic to shut me down. but instead pushed me to find inner power and wisdom. the last time i was awake and a light was coming out my chest, i pushed the demon with all my force,where it was right in my face.
Rey
after this it never bothered me again, to this day though i still think about what really was going on at the time. i have looked into different possibilities and at other peoples cases. my friends and some cousins have similar experiences but they dont understand what is going on, which is an issue
Rey
i wish to help people with, but what i learned is that its up to the indivisual what path they want to take. personaly i dont believe they are real demons attacking people, but energy that we carry with us from our surroundings and our own output. Pranav i think you found a different way to overcome
Rey
the attacks but not everyone can and shouldnt let them in.. you used your ability to change your perspective, giving you the power from god to denounce the energy and create a new power and wisdom growth, which is necessary for the change thats coming
Rey
when u respond consciously to life. Its really easy to get lucid dreams. But do not focus to much on lucid dreams as they are just dreams madeup by ur mind.
Pranav
importance of psychology
Ajumuka Reply
helping someone whose in need
Balqis
giving a huge hope to the not only the one community, but also all people on earth, maybe to whole universe.
Emre
Discovering the secrets behind cognition and the sense of self
Bogdan
discovering the secrets behind consciousness its self!
juan
a better understanding of the "why's " of a person's actions to better help them
Rachel
Hi,what is life-span prespective?
Roghayeh Reply
the estimated life spand of and individual or organision
Fire
life- span deals with the makeup of life. It's about understanding human development in every sense of the word. Just think about everything in the world being define. This is the study of overall.
Kia
thanks
Selman
thank u, stages of memory?
Roghayeh
incoding storage and retrival it
Fire
to keep it
jordan
what is the relevance of psychology to law?
Ajumuka Reply
psychology provide insights on the impact of laws in the lives of the citizens
Kyrie
it helps examine different areas of legal and social significance
MKumar
relevence of psychology is great in the legal system especially in psychopathology like the explaination of why tedd bundy did such gruesome acts and the explaination tbat what should be the rulling on such a person in such a case .....And also in cases generally for prisoners in prison..
Shafeeq
it plays an extremely important role in law..sometimes the difference between outright guilt or insanity
Rachel
discusse the behavioral an humanists of personality
Collins Reply
I'm having a little struggle understanding the topic
Connor
behavioralists and humanists I presume!
Urooj
which chap..?pg nmbr...
Shafeeq
it appears to be a depth check into the internal experience of whom you have found yourself to be, and wether it reflects what some people may have wished to find themselves being. the congruency vs incongruence seems a debate, Taoism vs motivation like "be better than you are!"
Connor
Hi, I'm pursuing my B A Psychology first year through Ambedkar open University I would like do internships about psychology or related fields. if any interns available in Chennai location let me know about that friends
Chennakesavarao Reply
Can someone please help me out with the humanistic theory?
onoja Reply
Humanistic, humanism and humanist are terms in psychology relating to an approach which studies the whole person, and the uniqueness of each individual. ... Sometimes the humanistic approach is called phenomenological. This means that personality is studied from the point of view of the individual's
Rushna
the humanistic theory is apsychology perspective that considers all people are inherently good .To reach the level of "goodness" every person must go through certain phases in life. (psychologenie.com)
Roghayeh
the humanistic theory is a group of diverse theories that share a holistic conceptualization that emphasis the uniqueness, value, dignity, and worth of each human being as an individual.
Oseke
to help with the different types of mind set, with the interaction of people in the job they are going into.
Fritzina Reply
because psychology is the study of the mind. the mind is not a form you can touch.
Fritzina
it is a way to gain the knowledge directly and indirectly by observing and experience
Fritzina
the scientific study of
Fritzina
the study of the mind and behavior
Fritzina
as a psychologist we are not study people's mind, we are observed, explained, predict, control,describes. example we describe human behaviour :when we study the human behavior, then it will help us to describe behaviour of a particular person.
peter
You are right Alice P
femi
studying humans by observation only allows a view of the perceived interpretation of the observeds actions,what is missing is a major peice of what's truly happening out here in the real world and many people are not able to discuss life's questions that are asked and reults are misconstrued conclus
Joni
very true
Selman
agreed
ricky
Spanish lovin is right befor the time of god u know what I'm saying
sammy
think about a profiler. they use psychology to find a criminal and prosecute in the name of the LAW
Brycen

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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