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Fetal stage (weeks 9–40)

When the organism is about nine weeks old, the embryo is called a fetus. At this stage, the fetus is about the size of a kidney bean and begins to take on the recognizable form of a human being as the “tail” begins to disappear.

From 9–12 weeks, the sex organs begin to differentiate. At about 16 weeks, the fetus is approximately 4.5 inches long. Fingers and toes are fully developed, and fingerprints are visible. By the time the fetus reaches the sixth month of development (24 weeks), it weighs up to 1.4 pounds. Hearing has developed, so the fetus can respond to sounds. The internal organs, such as the lungs, heart, stomach, and intestines, have formed enough that a fetus born prematurely at this point has a chance to survive outside of the mother’s womb. Throughout the fetal stage the brain continues to grow and develop, nearly doubling in size from weeks 16 to 28. Around 36 weeks, the fetus is almost ready for birth. It weighs about 6 pounds and is about 18.5 inches long, and by week 37 all of the fetus’s organ systems are developed enough that it could survive outside the mother’s uterus without many of the risks associated with premature birth. The fetus continues to gain weight and grow in length until approximately 40 weeks. By then, the fetus has very little room to move around and birth becomes imminent. The progression through the stages is shown in [link] .

The growth of a fetus is shown using nine pictures in different stages of development. For each stage, there is a picture of a fetus which gets progressively larger and more mature. The first stage is labeled “9 weeks; fetal stage begins.” The second stage is labeled “12 weeks; sex organs differentiate.” The third stage is labeled “16 weeks; fingers and toes develop.” The fourth stage is labeled “20 weeks; hearing begins.” The fifth stage is labeled “24 weeks; lungs begin to develop.” The sixth stage is labeled “28 weeks; brain grows rapidly.” The seventh stage is labeled “32 weeks; bones fully develop.” The eighth stage is labeled “36 weeks; muscles fully develop.” The ninth stage is labeled “40 weeks; full-term development.”
During the fetal stage, the baby's brain develops and the body adds size and weight, until the fetus reaches full-term development.

Prenatal influences

During each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors can affect development. The developing fetus is completely dependent on the mother for life. It is important that the mother takes good care of herself and receives prenatal care    , which is medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and the fetus ( [link] ). According to the National Institutes of Health ([NIH], 2013), routine prenatal care is important because it can reduce the risk of complications to the mother and fetus during pregnancy. In fact, women who are trying to become pregnant or who may become pregnant should discuss pregnancy planning with their doctor. They may be advised, for example, to take a vitamin containing folic acid, which helps prevent certain birth defects, or to monitor aspects of their diet or exercise routines.

A pregnant woman is lying on a table being examined by a doctor. The doctor's hands are on her belly.
A pregnant woman receives an ultrasound as part of her prenatal care. (credit: United States Agency for International Development)

Recall that when the zygote attaches to the wall of the mother’s uterus, the placenta is formed. The placenta provides nourishment and oxygen to the fetus. Most everything the mother ingests, including food, liquid, and even medication, travels through the placenta to the fetus, hence the common phrase “eating for two.” Anything the mother is exposed to in the environment affects the fetus; if the mother is exposed to something harmful, the child can show life-long effects.

Questions & Answers

can losing someone in a traumatic way cause someone to develop things like anxiety and panic attacks?
Chloe Reply
it can but not always. depends upon the coping capabilities of the person.
Bonito
say this person has never dealt with such grief before and they don't know how to cope
Chloe
a neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger that carries signals between neurons/nerve cells. These chemical messengers influence both physical and psychological functionings. Some important neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Seratonin, GABA and Dopamine
Aisha Reply
aha
Ihrar
what is a neurotransmitter
Ash Reply
they're simply chemical messengers which go from one neuron to another
Chloe
it is a chemical which uses in the communication of neurons may be excitatory or inhibitory
natnael
Neuro transmitter,it is a biological or chemical substance that carries information from the nervous systems expertialy from the Brian to all parts of the body of both humans and animals.
Tanam
what are the limitations of case study in psychology?
Rajat Reply
Ethics
Maria
sample selection biasness, cannot generalized to wider population, difficult to establish cause effect relationship, observational biasness, limited data collection etc
prachi
what is the educational psychology
Arabinda Reply
Educational psychology is the application of psychological theories and principles in school or classroom.
Tanam
it is a branch of modern psychology concerned with the learning process and psychological problems of teachers and students
Chika
how does limbic system works?
Anu Reply
I am doing a counselling course in person centred but I like to help and advise what should I do extra ,?
terry Reply
During the time you are being taught textbook psychology you should round your education with real world experience by volunteering at institutions you have an interest in making a possible career of after you graduate.
Carey
how does psychology is different from applied psychology
Laxmi Reply
applied psychology is a kind of psychology which tried to show the application of psychology in your practical life though there is no such differences between the content but it's more practical than basic psychology which includes lots of distribution within the discipline & theoretical in nature
deepashree
could anyone explain what course are available for applied psychology I'm highly interested and use psychology to help me understand and process like through my experiences and would love to develop a deeper understand and knowledge bases so I'm able to extract the wisdom?
Michael
applied psychology is in its a course . there are 2 types of courses 1. B.A. /M.A.psychology 2 . B.A./ M.A. applied psychology
deepashree
if you want to be an clinical psycologist you can also opt for B.A. or M.A in clinical psycology
Raksha
psychology is the study of behavior and mental functioning of both human and animals.On the other hand applied psychology is the use of psychological theories and principles to solve psychological problems.
Tanam
reasons why we conduct personality assessment
Olaleye Reply
we conduct it for knowing one person's attitude and identifying the faults from it easily
Jaswanth
for knowing our strengths and weaknesses
Kris
personality assessment can provide us with a way to categorize different charateristics or traits that we may not be aware of.Also, this categorization will help us learn how others might react to something in their environment.
Tanam
These assignments can be used for self reflection and understanding for job placement and for learning how to better interact with others in a team or work group.
Tanam
well explained Tanam Ibrahim
Kris
thank you all
Tanam
what is applied psychology then ?
Varshaa Reply
applied psychology is psychology for a narrow audience basic psychology is broad, in comparrison to applied psychology. Basic psychology wants to discover people's motive to every day environmental wellness. Applied psychology wants to discover what motivates you to buy an eco friendly product.
Briana
Applied psychology refers to applying the concepts and theories to understand why people do what they do and perhaps change the behaviour in cases where it is abnormal.
Maria
does industrial psychology come under this ? wt abt social media and product designing psychology ....does it come under this applied psychology
Varshaa
Industrial psychology basically deals with issues in the workplace and focuses more on increasing productivity and the well-being of the employees.
Maria
Social media and product designing is not a sub field in psychology. It is a topic tho.
Maria
wt abt career in those Feilds..of social media and product design
Varshaa
Social psychologists and product designers usually takes a behavioural approach. If it's directly in the field of psychology I'd suggest social aspect. Psychology is within every field. What are you currently studying?
Maria
I am studying BA Hons applied psychology
Varshaa
Product designing falls under consumer psychology which is a branch of Social psychology through which conscious and unconscious influence prompts customers to buy or not buy the products.
Maria
oh kay cool..soo wt abt u ?...Ur are studying?
Varshaa
I'm studying Psychology. In the future I'll specialize in Clinical Psychology.
Maria
oh great !...
Varshaa
Do you guys have to obtain a phD before the license is granted?
Maria
hi guys
TECHNICAL
not exactly ...we need to have minimum MA I guess....
Varshaa
am not quite sure abt that ......
Varshaa
Okay.
Maria
any leads about Neuro Psychology
Pradeep Reply
What is Neuro psychology?
Michael
it aim to study the relationship between nervous system and cognitive behaviour. it culminate to identify pathway of neuron functioning followed in course of psychological phenomena. it is widely used to identify biological differences in an individual psychology.
prachi
its true
kitwala
how to get license of professional psychologists in India
Basavaraj
you have to do MPhil to practise as a psychologist in India
Himshikha
Can you name some good colleges in India, where I can do MPhil in Clinical Psychology.
Khursheede
The best is NIMHANS Bangalore
Himshikha
Nimhans is great my junior have doing der P.G
Pradeep
helo
parsa
what is mean by cognitive science
Umesh
Cognitive science is the study of the mind and what is does, including many scientific disciplines that touch on the subject. In this lesson, we will briefly explore the definition of cognitive science, and review its history.
Alicia
you probably got on here the same way I did you download the app
Richard
how to learn this cognitive science and where are the colleges?
Umesh
not exactly what I expected
Richard
the app is pretty decent though
Richard
I'm going to lee community college and this app is actually the text book they have us reading... you can find it for free in kindle but the app helps because it's interactive and has built in vocab cards
Taylor
umesh, what are you talking about? do you know english well?
Rey
This is the app they have students reading 🤔 The Caribbean really do have it harder and do much more in a year.
Maria
not the app itself, this app is made from the actual text book.... It's basically exactly the same
Taylor
I've seen the content.
Maria
discrimination learning
gaurav Reply
phenomenon in psychology which enable person to behave differently in different stimuli. it is mostly used to study pattern recognation, concept formation, etc. as opposite to generalized learning.
prachi
Example?
dummy
wow
Rabbitt
Hi
Srinivas
hello
Princeed
Hi
Srinivas
What can I ask in particular
DIPAL
I love psychology subject.
Rahul
i am msc psychology student
maira
plz pray for me...my exams are after Eid
maira
all the best maira
Rahul
best of luck and God bless you
MISBAH
all the best dear
Saran
same condition
MISBAH
Allah bless u maira khalid
Rao
my exam also occuring on 28june
MISBAH
my 21 june
maira
thnx
maira
from where you doing msc
MISBAH
punjab university in lahore
maira
ok
MISBAH
I am from amu aligarh
MISBAH
and you
maira
but I am doing M.A. in psychology
MISBAH
u r part 2 student
maira
can u guide me in subject of health psychology
maira
bcoz its too much difficult
maira
did you study clinical psychology
MISBAH
previous course
MISBAH
if not, you must study clinical psychology
MISBAH
Hi
dilawar
yes i did clinical psychology
maira
So why are you worry about health psychology. Just read read and read
dilawar
then you should not be worry and according to me you must make career in clinical psychology because it's scope is very waste in comparison to other
MISBAH
i know
maira
Is any one preparing for entrance exam for MA in DU?
Arjun
I have not enough information about health psychology because I have not health psychology in B.A. I am preparing for M.A.
MISBAH
but I think I can guide you better
MISBAH
I am
Aarti
can you tell me about the fees for d.u. semester wise
MISBAH
For general or applied psychology?
Arjun
applied
MISBAH
what
maira
best of luck... both ov u..
Adicted
yes
maira
where are you from ?
Adicted
The fees are 9k per year
Arjun
So how are u preparing for it?
Arjun
I am not preparing but I want to know
MISBAH
I am only interested in amu aligarh
MISBAH
So have u applied it?
Arjun
because my financial condition is not good so I am only affordable for amu
MISBAH
Oho ok
Arjun
the world cheapest education in amu aligarh , anybody can study in amu
MISBAH
Great
Arjun
Student oriented loans and the scholarship programs can help u with this...
Lakshika
yes
MISBAH
I know
MISBAH
Anyone preparing for fergusson college MA (Pune)?
Arjun
Anyone here from Jamia?
Himshikha
I'm from the Caribbean.
Maria
ok
maira
How many of you have psychology as a major
DIPAL
🖐️
Maria
masters
Richard
I mean máster in psychology
DIPAL
Hello
Maria
I did batcholrs in Psychology in U.G now in P.G doing masters in Psychology and also doing Msw(Medical&Psychiatry)
Pradeep
I think no need of specialization on health psychology in under Graduation you would have study as paper. one of my senior working as health psychologist in HH hospital. good luck!
Pradeep
U.G?
Maria
hy guys
deepashree
U.G Undergraduate @maria mam
Pradeep
I've got into MA Applied Psychology in Jamia Millia Islamia
Himshikha
I have m. Sc in general psychology
dilawar
Alot of spelling mistakes ?
Lawrence
World Cup about to start....relax & enjoy Pyschology and football.
Lawrence
Russia to win as host and first match to kick off in 2018..
Lawrence
I am very interested in studying human behaviour..now doing NLP studies and a certified hypnotist...
Lawrence
I am from Singapore...
Lawrence
I am Jaswanth from India
Jaswanth
I notice that Indians are very interested in Literature,Law and humanities studies..etc
Lawrence
I am dilawar. I am from Pakistan. I am psychologist
dilawar
There are so many divisions in psychology! and both science & arts students can study psychology. Can any one of you please clarify me this?
Prasuta
I joined ignou for clinical psychology
Raghu
in india there is M.A and M.sc in psychology. one part says it come under arts but other part says it's sciende. in anyhow anything which is proved come under in science and professionals from world wide believes Psychology is an science and this are proven except come theories include
Pradeep
I am from Ghana in Africa
Tanam
thanks
Prasuta
and what is the difference between 'psychologists' and 'psychiatrist'?
Prasuta
also people will call them self as Psychogist just with batcholrs & masters but only few are deserve to a quality Psychologist. a quality Psychologist is one who invent new theories and discover new things from people. just a degree doesn't make them Psychologist.
Pradeep
I have not gotten the time to stay with you guys to learn the more
Tanam
well said
Prasuta
I am also a psychology student.i therefore need your help both advise and in studies
Tanam
one of the best example I can provide is Eg: SCIENTIST is the person who is well expert and talent in his field. we doesn't have any degree or study to be a scientist. they are the people who study same batcholrs and masters and M.phil and Ph.D graduates
Pradeep
I am also a psychology student.i therefore need your help both advise and in studies
Tanam
Psychologist- the person who study behavior of human. therapy and counseling will be provided by them. people who studies B.Sc B.A , M.sc , M.Phil, P.hd psychatrist- they are actually doctors who studies MBBS and in their specialization they do MD in psychiatry. they can only prescrip medicine
Pradeep
good
maira
okay.... thank you very much for the clarification..😊
Prasuta
I also need help from people who have already completed their master's in psychology
Raghu
are you a psychiatrist/psychologist?
Prasuta
i am student of msc part 2.
maira
Difference of Schizoid from Schizotypal
Hyacinth Reply
Schizoid is a term used to describe someone who is emotionally aloof and likes solidarity while Schizotypal reffers to Schizotypal disorder which is much like depression
Chloe
how to handle our anger? I have tried many ways in handling myself whenever I'm feeling angry but without any success.
Gayathri Reply
hy Gayathri , there are various techniques to manage your anger . you can look into YouTube video for some easy management controlling ways .
deepashree
hi Deepa, thanks, but it might work for some and not work for others.
Gayathri
I've tried stress busting techniques like writing a diary, listening to songs but I'm not getting enough success. I'm also losing my sleep over my stress.
Gayathri
u cn counsel urself with ur frnds!!!
Bhavin
have you tried cognitive behavioral therapy?
Richard
I can't really trouble my friends for my stress as they have problems of their own. and we cannot really mix personal with friends isn't it?
Gayathri
oh if you don't mind, can you please explain how to do it Richard?
Gayathri
Try meditating while listening to a favorite song or a calming music, don't be impatient when it comes to it, you will fail to relax if you became impatient afterall
dummy
hmm
Gayathri
sure 😊
Richard
cognitive behavioral therapy is a type of therapy where you would knowledge how a situation makes you feel why it makes you feel the way it does and by understanding that you learn how to change the way you deal with the problem you're not ignoring it you just changing how it affects you
Richard
and if you go on the internet you can see demonstrations on how it works and from my experience it can be very useful
Richard
hope this information helps
Richard
if you want the best results it's always advisable to use it with someone who is decently trained in using it
Richard
u don't need to feel anything to any situation. u will understand wen u realize urself. but for reducing anger, first u urself witness what is happening to u while u get angry. even wen u get fear or sad look at urself and find out root cause of y u feel like that.
Arjun
and as I mentioned before when you ask questions on this site make sure the people that respond have qualifications and experience in the situation
Richard
Thanks Richard, does life experience qualify?
Hallie
yes, to an extent
Richard
it can be a useful tool when trying to connect with someone but be mindful that it's very easy for transference to occur
Richard
have you tried neuro-linguistic programming or read psycho-cybernetics?
juan
I'm familiar
Richard
boxing
Aidan
yeah, mayby find a sport to pour your anger into.... transmute all that powerful energy
juan
the concepts or the book?
juan
both
Richard
do you mind if I ask for your age?
juan
For someone to control his or her anger,he or she must take in a deep breath after u smile, sit down if u r standing n hold watoer in ur mouth dat will prevent u from speaking when it comes down u let it go down ur trought. I promise ur anger will go.
Tanam
For someone to control his or her anger,he or she must take in a deep breath after u smile, sit down if u r standing n hold water in ur mouth dat will prevent u from speaking when it comes down u let it go down ur trought. I promise ur anger will go.
Tanam
42
Richard
and you?
Richard
tanam has some great stuff⬆️. what do you think about raki energy healing or shamanism? are you currently affiliated with any kind of esoteric teachings?
juan
oh rich, I thought I was talking with gayathri
juan
sorry but you can't promise that
Richard
or rather you shouldn't promise that
Richard
I'm young, barely passed my 20th solar Cycle
juan
but I can relate big time with gayathri
juan
I'm not promising anything
juan
ok
Tanam
I'm 29 Juan
Gayathri
that's the age one easily gets angry
Krish
ahaan
Gayathri
how do you say
Gayathri
coz anger is purely an impulse and is situational isn't it?
Gayathri
anger is not only impulsive
Finn
like, you can accumulate it if u don't vent it out somehow
Finn
and ud just be pissed for no reason over the smallest crap
Finn
when someone made me angry, I keep quiet but in my mind I'd killed them 3x...
Princess
ye like u keep bottling that crap up and then u'll want to kill someone who just accidentally bumped into u
Finn
gr8 guys You all are source of knowledge thanks all
Bhavin
i think the source of anger derrives attention because if anger didnt attract other(concerned) people attention or if you didnt get a reaction from it i dnt think it would be the method of emotion shown
poetical
coming from someone who has suffered from mental illness so i kinda know, but doesnt apply to al people
poetical
you are right @poetical. but if that's the case. anger should always be let out that's the conventional way but when it involves another person. keep it inside you. that will get u out of any relationship. the minute u let it out, your mind will find a 1000 reasons to patch up
Senthil
I believe in order to control angry we must sought after the root in which we were angered. There is a cause and effect. I believe if we dissect the root of an issue then we can better analyze the outcome via our emotion. I will say however most will never say that they will master the essence of
Shanna
handling the anger. It has become a natural state of expression that it becomes almost healthy in many ways to many ..as a ventalation mechanism.
Shanna
I think it's a growth process. I also think it's will driven and molded over time for one to handle such an emotion effectively.With much practice we will have to subconsciously make a decision to postively react on a more passive level yet again anger is such a quick and hostile emotional that it a
Shanna
shield in some ways. I also will state the not all anger is bad. That emotuon can very well be stirred to support a positive thing such as someone doing wrong to the next person or u see a crime ..etc.. Many have their eays of dealing with anger. For me, i pray but sometimes that isnt as effective
Shanna
during the moment.
Shanna
Typos..sorry
Shanna
Doing something intense (you enjoy) in which you exert yourself a lot can release pent up energy. I get hostile at times. I find weight lifting or any exercise in which you're strengthening the mind body connection great. Everything is interconnected. CBT as mentioned is very good as well! good luck
Jamie
cbt?
Bhavin
reference earlier in the thread! i would describe it as effectively changing thought patterns. responding not with anger but with a productive solution in mind helps. distraction like listening to music etc can only do so much.
Jamie
That's a neurons transition problem. it means your brain unable to transmit that occuring specific action. Try this same activity multiple times so that the recognition actively work for prolonged i.e, helping kids to writing a letter, after multiple attempts this activity validates n recognitions
Ramit Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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