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By the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Discuss personality differences of people from collectivist and individualist cultures
  • Discuss the three approaches to studying personality in a cultural context

As you have learned in this chapter, personality is shaped by both genetic and environmental factors. The culture    in which you live is one of the most important environmental factors that shapes your personality (Triandis&Suh, 2002). The term culture    refers to all of the beliefs, customs, art, and traditions of a particular society. Culture is transmitted to people through language as well as through the modeling of culturally acceptable and nonacceptable behaviors that are either rewarded or punished (Triandis&Suh, 2002). With these ideas in mind, personality psychologists have become interested in the role of culture in understanding personality. They ask whether personality traits are the same across cultures or if there are variations. It appears that there are both universal and culture-specific aspects that account for variation in people’s personalities.

Why might it be important to consider cultural influences on personality? Western ideas about personality may not be applicable to other cultures (Benet-Martinez&Oishi, 2008). In fact, there is evidence that the strength of personality traits varies across cultures. Let’s take a look at some of the Big Five factors (conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion) across cultures. As you will learn when you study social psychology, Asian cultures are more collectivist, and people in these cultures tend to be less extroverted. People in Central and South American cultures tend to score higher on openness to experience, whereas Europeans score higher on neuroticism (Benet-Martinez&Karakitapoglu-Aygun, 2003).

According to this study, there also seem to be regional personality differences within the United States ( [link] ). Researchers analyzed responses from over 1.5 million individuals in the United States and found that there are three distinct regional personality clusters: Cluster 1, which is in the Upper Midwest and Deep South, is dominated by people who fall into the “friendly and conventional” personality; Cluster 2, which includes the West, is dominated by people who are more relaxed, emotionally stable, calm, and creative; and Cluster 3, which includes the Northeast, has more people who are stressed, irritable, and depressed. People who live in Clusters 2 and 3 are also generally more open (Rentfrow et al., 2013).

A map of the United States is shown. Above it is the label “Personality Clusters in the Continental United States.” Below it is a legend which defines areas in the map as either, “Cluster 1: friendly, conventional;” “Cluster 2: relaxed, creative;” or “Cluster 3: temperamental, uninhibited.” Cluster 1occurs mainly in the center of the country. Cluster 2 occurs mainly on the west side of the country. Cluster 3 occurs mainly in the North-East region of the country and also in Texas. These are generalizations; there are several states which are comprised of a combination of two different clusters.
Researchers found three distinct regional personality clusters in the United States. People tend to be friendly and conventional in the Upper Midwest and Deep South; relaxed, emotionally stable, and creative in the West; and stressed, irritable, and depressed in the Northeast (Rentfrow et al., 2013).

One explanation for the regional differences is selective migration    (Rentfrow et al., 2013). Selective migration is the concept that people choose to move to places that are compatible with their personalities and needs. For example, a person high on the agreeable scale would likely want to live near family and friends, and would choose to settle or remain in such an area. In contrast, someone high on openness would prefer to settle in a place that is recognized as diverse and innovative (such as California).

Personality in individualist and collectivist cultures

Individualist cultures and collectivist cultures place emphasis on different basic values. People who live in individualist cultures tend to believe that independence, competition, and personal achievement are important. Individuals in Western nations such as the United States, England, and Australia score high on individualism (Oyserman, Coon,&Kemmelmier, 2002). People who live in collectivist cultures value social harmony, respectfulness, and group needs over individual needs. Individuals who live in countries in Asia, Africa, and South America score high on collectivism (Hofstede, 2001; Triandis, 1995). These values influence personality. For example, Yang (2006) found that people in individualist cultures displayed more personally oriented personality traits, whereas people in collectivist cultures displayed more socially oriented personality traits.

Approaches to studying personality in a cultural context

There are three approaches that can be used to study personality in a cultural context, the cultural-comparative approach ; the indigenous approach ; and the combined approach , which incorporates elements of both views. Since ideas about personality have a Western basis, the cultural-comparative approach seeks to test Western ideas about personality in other cultures to determine whether they can be generalized and if they have cultural validity (Cheung van de Vijver,&Leong, 2011). For example, recall from the previous section on the trait perspective that researchers used the cultural-comparative approach to test the universality of McCrae and Costa’s Five Factor Model. They found applicability in numerous cultures around the world, with the Big Five traits being stable in many cultures (McCrae&Costa, 1997; McCrae et al., 2005). The indigenous approach came about in reaction to the dominance of Western approaches to the study of personality in non-Western settings (Cheung et al., 2011). Because Western-based personality assessments cannot fully capture the personality constructs of other cultures, the indigenous model has led to the development of personality assessment instruments that are based on constructs relevant to the culture being studied (Cheung et al., 2011). The third approach to cross-cultural studies of personality is the combined approach, which serves as a bridge between Western and indigenous psychology as a way of understanding both universal and cultural variations in personality (Cheung et al., 2011).

Summary

The culture in which you live is one of the most important environmental factors that shapes your personality. Western ideas about personality may not be applicable to other cultures. In fact, there is evidence that the strength of personality traits varies across cultures. Individualist cultures and collectivist cultures place emphasis on different basic values. People who live in individualist cultures tend to believe that independence, competition, and personal achievement are important. People who live in collectivist cultures value social harmony, respectfulness, and group needs over individual needs. There are three approaches that can be used to study personality in a cultural context: the cultural-comparative approach, the indigenous approach, and the combined approach, which incorporates both elements of both views.

Personal application questions

According to the work of Rentfrow and colleagues, personalities are not randomly distributed. Instead they fit into distinct geographic clusters. Based on where you live, do you agree or disagree with the traits associated with yourself and the residents of your area of the country? Why or why not?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

how does limbic system works?
Anu Reply
I am doing a counselling course in person centred but I like to help and advise what should I do extra ,?
terry Reply
During the time you are being taught textbook psychology you should round your education with real world experience by volunteering at institutions you have an interest in making a possible career of after you graduate.
Carey
how does psychology is different from applied psychology
Laxmi Reply
applied psychology is a kind of psychology which tried to show the application of psychology in your practical life though there is no such differences between the content but it's more practical than basic psychology which includes lots of distribution within the discipline & theoretical in nature
deepashree
could anyone explain what course are available for applied psychology I'm highly interested and use psychology to help me understand and process like through my experiences and would love to develop a deeper understand and knowledge bases so I'm able to extract the wisdom?
Michael
applied psychology is in its a course . there are 2 types of courses 1. B.A. /M.A.psychology 2 . B.A./ M.A. applied psychology
deepashree
if you want to be an clinical psycologist you can also opt for B.A. or M.A in clinical psycology
Raksha
psychology is the study of behavior and mental functioning of both human and animals.On the other hand applied psychology is the use of psychological theories and principles to solve psychological problems.
Tanam
reasons why we conduct personality assessment
Olaleye Reply
we conduct it for knowing one person's attitude and identifying the faults from it easily
Jaswanth
for knowing our strengths and weaknesses
Kris
personality assessment can provide us with a way to categorize different charateristics or traits that we may not be aware of.Also, this categorization will help us learn how others might react to something in their environment.
Tanam
These assignments can be used for self reflection and understanding for job placement and for learning how to better interact with others in a team or work group.
Tanam
well explained Tanam Ibrahim
Kris
thank you all
Tanam
what is applied psychology then ?
Varshaa Reply
applied psychology is psychology for a narrow audience basic psychology is broad, in comparrison to applied psychology. Basic psychology wants to discover people's motive to every day environmental wellness. Applied psychology wants to discover what motivates you to buy an eco friendly product.
Briana
Applied psychology refers to applying the concepts and theories to understand why people do what they do and perhaps change the behaviour in cases where it is abnormal.
Maria
does industrial psychology come under this ? wt abt social media and product designing psychology ....does it come under this applied psychology
Varshaa
Industrial psychology basically deals with issues in the workplace and focuses more on increasing productivity and the well-being of the employees.
Maria
Social media and product designing is not a sub field in psychology. It is a topic tho.
Maria
wt abt career in those Feilds..of social media and product design
Varshaa
Social psychologists and product designers usually takes a behavioural approach. If it's directly in the field of psychology I'd suggest social aspect. Psychology is within every field. What are you currently studying?
Maria
I am studying BA Hons applied psychology
Varshaa
Product designing falls under consumer psychology which is a branch of Social psychology through which conscious and unconscious influence prompts customers to buy or not buy the products.
Maria
oh kay cool..soo wt abt u ?...Ur are studying?
Varshaa
I'm studying Psychology. In the future I'll specialize in Clinical Psychology.
Maria
oh great !...
Varshaa
Do you guys have to obtain a phD before the license is granted?
Maria
hi guys
TECHNICAL
not exactly ...we need to have minimum MA I guess....
Varshaa
am not quite sure abt that ......
Varshaa
Okay.
Maria
any leads about Neuro Psychology
Pradeep Reply
What is Neuro psychology?
Michael
it aim to study the relationship between nervous system and cognitive behaviour. it culminate to identify pathway of neuron functioning followed in course of psychological phenomena. it is widely used to identify biological differences in an individual psychology.
prachi
its true
kitwala
how to get license of professional psychologists in India
Basavaraj
you have to do MPhil to practise as a psychologist in India
Himshikha
Can you name some good colleges in India, where I can do MPhil in Clinical Psychology.
Khursheede
The best is NIMHANS Bangalore
Himshikha
Nimhans is great my junior have doing der P.G
Pradeep
helo
parsa
what is mean by cognitive science
Umesh
Cognitive science is the study of the mind and what is does, including many scientific disciplines that touch on the subject. In this lesson, we will briefly explore the definition of cognitive science, and review its history.
Alicia
you probably got on here the same way I did you download the app
Richard
how to learn this cognitive science and where are the colleges?
Umesh
not exactly what I expected
Richard
the app is pretty decent though
Richard
discrimination learning
gaurav Reply
phenomenon in psychology which enable person to behave differently in different stimuli. it is mostly used to study pattern recognation, concept formation, etc. as opposite to generalized learning.
prachi
Example?
dummy
wow
Rabbitt
Hi
Srinivas
hello
Princeed
Hi
Srinivas
What can I ask in particular
DIPAL
I love psychology subject.
Rahul
i am msc psychology student
maira
plz pray for me...my exams are after Eid
maira
all the best maira
Rahul
best of luck and God bless you
MISBAH
all the best dear
Saran
same condition
MISBAH
Allah bless u maira khalid
Rao
my exam also occuring on 28june
MISBAH
my 21 june
maira
thnx
maira
from where you doing msc
MISBAH
punjab university in lahore
maira
ok
MISBAH
I am from amu aligarh
MISBAH
and you
maira
but I am doing M.A. in psychology
MISBAH
u r part 2 student
maira
can u guide me in subject of health psychology
maira
bcoz its too much difficult
maira
did you study clinical psychology
MISBAH
previous course
MISBAH
if not, you must study clinical psychology
MISBAH
Hi
dilawar
yes i did clinical psychology
maira
So why are you worry about health psychology. Just read read and read
dilawar
then you should not be worry and according to me you must make career in clinical psychology because it's scope is very waste in comparison to other
MISBAH
i know
maira
Is any one preparing for entrance exam for MA in DU?
Arjun
I have not enough information about health psychology because I have not health psychology in B.A. I am preparing for M.A.
MISBAH
but I think I can guide you better
MISBAH
I am
Aarti
can you tell me about the fees for d.u. semester wise
MISBAH
For general or applied psychology?
Arjun
applied
MISBAH
what
maira
best of luck... both ov u..
Adicted
yes
maira
where are you from ?
Adicted
The fees are 9k per year
Arjun
So how are u preparing for it?
Arjun
I am not preparing but I want to know
MISBAH
I am only interested in amu aligarh
MISBAH
So have u applied it?
Arjun
because my financial condition is not good so I am only affordable for amu
MISBAH
Oho ok
Arjun
the world cheapest education in amu aligarh , anybody can study in amu
MISBAH
Great
Arjun
Student oriented loans and the scholarship programs can help u with this...
Lakshika
yes
MISBAH
I know
MISBAH
Anyone preparing for fergusson college MA (Pune)?
Arjun
Anyone here from Jamia?
Himshikha
I'm from the Caribbean.
Maria
ok
maira
How many of you have psychology as a major
DIPAL
🖐️
Maria
masters
Richard
I mean máster in psychology
DIPAL
Hello
Maria
I did batcholrs in Psychology in U.G now in P.G doing masters in Psychology and also doing Msw(Medical&Psychiatry)
Pradeep
I think no need of specialization on health psychology in under Graduation you would have study as paper. one of my senior working as health psychologist in HH hospital. good luck!
Pradeep
U.G?
Maria
hy guys
deepashree
U.G Undergraduate @maria mam
Pradeep
I've got into MA Applied Psychology in Jamia Millia Islamia
Himshikha
I have m. Sc in general psychology
dilawar
Alot of spelling mistakes ?
Lawrence
World Cup about to start....relax & enjoy Pyschology and football.
Lawrence
Russia to win as host and first match to kick off in 2018..
Lawrence
I am very interested in studying human behaviour..now doing NLP studies and a certified hypnotist...
Lawrence
I am from Singapore...
Lawrence
I am Jaswanth from India
Jaswanth
I notice that Indians are very interested in Literature,Law and humanities studies..etc
Lawrence
I am dilawar. I am from Pakistan. I am psychologist
dilawar
There are so many divisions in psychology! and both science & arts students can study psychology. Can any one of you please clarify me this?
Prasuta
I joined ignou for clinical psychology
Raghu
in india there is M.A and M.sc in psychology. one part says it come under arts but other part says it's sciende. in anyhow anything which is proved come under in science and professionals from world wide believes Psychology is an science and this are proven except come theories include
Pradeep
I am from Ghana in Africa
Tanam
thanks
Prasuta
and what is the difference between 'psychologists' and 'psychiatrist'?
Prasuta
also people will call them self as Psychogist just with batcholrs & masters but only few are deserve to a quality Psychologist. a quality Psychologist is one who invent new theories and discover new things from people. just a degree doesn't make them Psychologist.
Pradeep
I have not gotten the time to stay with you guys to learn the more
Tanam
well said
Prasuta
I am also a psychology student.i therefore need your help both advise and in studies
Tanam
one of the best example I can provide is Eg: SCIENTIST is the person who is well expert and talent in his field. we doesn't have any degree or study to be a scientist. they are the people who study same batcholrs and masters and M.phil and Ph.D graduates
Pradeep
I am also a psychology student.i therefore need your help both advise and in studies
Tanam
Psychologist- the person who study behavior of human. therapy and counseling will be provided by them. people who studies B.Sc B.A , M.sc , M.Phil, P.hd psychatrist- they are actually doctors who studies MBBS and in their specialization they do MD in psychiatry. they can only prescrip medicine
Pradeep
good
maira
okay.... thank you very much for the clarification..😊
Prasuta
I also need help from people who have already completed their master's in psychology
Raghu
are you a psychiatrist/psychologist?
Prasuta
i am student of msc part 2.
maira
Difference of Schizoid from Schizotypal
Hyacinth Reply
Schizoid is a term used to describe someone who is emotionally aloof and likes solidarity while Schizotypal reffers to Schizotypal disorder which is much like depression
Chloe
how to handle our anger? I have tried many ways in handling myself whenever I'm feeling angry but without any success.
Gayathri Reply
hy Gayathri , there are various techniques to manage your anger . you can look into YouTube video for some easy management controlling ways .
deepashree
hi Deepa, thanks, but it might work for some and not work for others.
Gayathri
I've tried stress busting techniques like writing a diary, listening to songs but I'm not getting enough success. I'm also losing my sleep over my stress.
Gayathri
u cn counsel urself with ur frnds!!!
Bhavin
have you tried cognitive behavioral therapy?
Richard
I can't really trouble my friends for my stress as they have problems of their own. and we cannot really mix personal with friends isn't it?
Gayathri
oh if you don't mind, can you please explain how to do it Richard?
Gayathri
Try meditating while listening to a favorite song or a calming music, don't be impatient when it comes to it, you will fail to relax if you became impatient afterall
dummy
hmm
Gayathri
sure 😊
Richard
cognitive behavioral therapy is a type of therapy where you would knowledge how a situation makes you feel why it makes you feel the way it does and by understanding that you learn how to change the way you deal with the problem you're not ignoring it you just changing how it affects you
Richard
and if you go on the internet you can see demonstrations on how it works and from my experience it can be very useful
Richard
hope this information helps
Richard
if you want the best results it's always advisable to use it with someone who is decently trained in using it
Richard
u don't need to feel anything to any situation. u will understand wen u realize urself. but for reducing anger, first u urself witness what is happening to u while u get angry. even wen u get fear or sad look at urself and find out root cause of y u feel like that.
Arjun
and as I mentioned before when you ask questions on this site make sure the people that respond have qualifications and experience in the situation
Richard
Thanks Richard, does life experience qualify?
Hallie
yes, to an extent
Richard
it can be a useful tool when trying to connect with someone but be mindful that it's very easy for transference to occur
Richard
have you tried neuro-linguistic programming or read psycho-cybernetics?
juan
I'm familiar
Richard
boxing
Aidan
yeah, mayby find a sport to pour your anger into.... transmute all that powerful energy
juan
the concepts or the book?
juan
both
Richard
do you mind if I ask for your age?
juan
For someone to control his or her anger,he or she must take in a deep breath after u smile, sit down if u r standing n hold watoer in ur mouth dat will prevent u from speaking when it comes down u let it go down ur trought. I promise ur anger will go.
Tanam
For someone to control his or her anger,he or she must take in a deep breath after u smile, sit down if u r standing n hold water in ur mouth dat will prevent u from speaking when it comes down u let it go down ur trought. I promise ur anger will go.
Tanam
42
Richard
and you?
Richard
tanam has some great stuff⬆️. what do you think about raki energy healing or shamanism? are you currently affiliated with any kind of esoteric teachings?
juan
oh rich, I thought I was talking with gayathri
juan
sorry but you can't promise that
Richard
or rather you shouldn't promise that
Richard
I'm young, barely passed my 20th solar Cycle
juan
but I can relate big time with gayathri
juan
I'm not promising anything
juan
ok
Tanam
I'm 29 Juan
Gayathri
that's the age one easily gets angry
Krish
ahaan
Gayathri
how do you say
Gayathri
coz anger is purely an impulse and is situational isn't it?
Gayathri
anger is not only impulsive
Finn
like, you can accumulate it if u don't vent it out somehow
Finn
and ud just be pissed for no reason over the smallest crap
Finn
when someone made me angry, I keep quiet but in my mind I'd killed them 3x...
Princess
ye like u keep bottling that crap up and then u'll want to kill someone who just accidentally bumped into u
Finn
gr8 guys You all are source of knowledge thanks all
Bhavin
i think the source of anger derrives attention because if anger didnt attract other(concerned) people attention or if you didnt get a reaction from it i dnt think it would be the method of emotion shown
poetical
coming from someone who has suffered from mental illness so i kinda know, but doesnt apply to al people
poetical
you are right @poetical. but if that's the case. anger should always be let out that's the conventional way but when it involves another person. keep it inside you. that will get u out of any relationship. the minute u let it out, your mind will find a 1000 reasons to patch up
Senthil
I believe in order to control angry we must sought after the root in which we were angered. There is a cause and effect. I believe if we dissect the root of an issue then we can better analyze the outcome via our emotion. I will say however most will never say that they will master the essence of
Shanna
handling the anger. It has become a natural state of expression that it becomes almost healthy in many ways to many ..as a ventalation mechanism.
Shanna
I think it's a growth process. I also think it's will driven and molded over time for one to handle such an emotion effectively.With much practice we will have to subconsciously make a decision to postively react on a more passive level yet again anger is such a quick and hostile emotional that it a
Shanna
shield in some ways. I also will state the not all anger is bad. That emotuon can very well be stirred to support a positive thing such as someone doing wrong to the next person or u see a crime ..etc.. Many have their eays of dealing with anger. For me, i pray but sometimes that isnt as effective
Shanna
during the moment.
Shanna
Typos..sorry
Shanna
Doing something intense (you enjoy) in which you exert yourself a lot can release pent up energy. I get hostile at times. I find weight lifting or any exercise in which you're strengthening the mind body connection great. Everything is interconnected. CBT as mentioned is very good as well! good luck
Jamie
cbt?
Bhavin
reference earlier in the thread! i would describe it as effectively changing thought patterns. responding not with anger but with a productive solution in mind helps. distraction like listening to music etc can only do so much.
Jamie
That's a neurons transition problem. it means your brain unable to transmit that occuring specific action. Try this same activity multiple times so that the recognition actively work for prolonged i.e, helping kids to writing a letter, after multiple attempts this activity validates n recognitions
Ramit Reply
properties of sound is the most similar to brightness
Christina Reply
kind of , but obviously they perform different functions as per sound and brightness
deepashree
brightness is not even the exact word , it's the properties of light
deepashree
brightness is a property of light
deepashree
cn u elaborate?
Bhavin
there are 3 properties of sound 1. pitch ( high, medium , low ) 2. volume ( soft or loud sound) 3. timbre ( richness in the tone of sound ) there are 3 properties of lights as well 1. brightness - amplitude of wave 2. colour ( hue ) - length of the wave 3. saturation - purity of the color
deepashree
light and sound both are measured in terms of wavelength , amplitude and purity .
deepashree
pitch can also be understood as wavelength , volume as amplitude and timbre as purity . that's how perception of light and sound are correlated but like I said each performan different functions
deepashree
does?
Bhavin
? what does
deepashree
nothing thanks for information
Bhavin
here i am looking for some basis details n specially on psychology of human behavior. do u hv sm details for tht?
Bhavin
wow, that is actually really dope information. it makes sense, you really are a bright indivisual👌
Rey
hey Rey
Bhavin
hi, i was refering to deepashree, but 👋
Rey
thanks rey
deepashree
Ms Director gr8
Bhavin
hey guys I have a question. what does it mean if you keep losing your stuff?
Mahmoud
seriously this is out of my mind guys plz help Mahmoud
Bhavin
if you keep losing your stuff , that means you are unable to register things properly , like mostly it happens when things are not precious , we do not pay attention to it totally so we tend to forget and lose our stuff . if you are looking for a particular term for this then search on Google once
deepashree
@Mahmound- What stuff and and where did you lose it?
Hallie
I picked up this app to understand myself.
Hallie
@Mahmound- I've lost my mind. Want to help find it? Joke coping mechanism.
Hallie
what did descartes believe about the pineal gland ?
Jass Reply
that it was a connection to the soul
Navleen
What even is the Pineal Gland?
dummy
it is in the centre of the brain
Navleen
it is included in endocrine gland .located in the brain
MENAKA
Where can I read about DESNOS?
Kerstin Reply
So there are alot of psychological treatments depending on the psychiatrist theirself or the disorder or illness of the patient. I would like to know what is treatment works best schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorders/illness
dummy Reply
hey, does anybody have any recommendations on what to do when you are feeling extremely anxious too the point where you can eat any food because u are feeling like you're going to puke? and not eating makes me want to puke even more..I don't know what to do. breathing exercises aren't helping me
Diana Reply
I usually do something that distracts me, that makes me forget about my worries for a second, I usually try to watch funny movies or read a comedy.
Zeina
you can even try listening to good music it can really help relax our mind and try to analyze where we went wrong or what change we can make going forward
Gayathri
wt abt butterfly effects in stomach
Bhavin
wen u hv many things in ur mind or emotional drawn
Bhavin
one thing that may help is trying to SIP some sort of warm beverage. Cold causes muscles to constrict which can exacerbate nausea. Herbal tea or something more caloric/nutritive. Evening out blood sugar can help a lot when one is anxious. Releases neurotransmitters
Jamie
consider CBT
Johan
Diana, you still there?
Dylan
yes
Diana
I just want to know what kind of foods to eat
Diana
ones that won't make me nauses?
Diana
warm beverage is a good advice, thank you
Diana
what is the educational psychology
Arabinda Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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