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Features of the source of the persuasive message include the credibility of the speaker (Hovland&Weiss, 1951) and the physical attractiveness of the speaker (Eagly&Chaiken, 1975; Petty, Wegener,&Fabrigar, 1997). Thus, speakers who are credible, or have expertise on the topic, and who are deemed as trustworthy are more persuasive than less credible speakers. Similarly, more attractive speakers are more persuasive than less attractive speakers. The use of famous actors and athletes to advertise products on television and in print relies on this principle. The immediate and long term impact of the persuasion also depends, however, on the credibility of the messenger (Kumkale&Albarracín, 2004).

Features of the message itself that affect persuasion include subtlety (the quality of being important, but not obvious) (Petty&Cacioppo, 1986; Walster&Festinger, 1962); sidedness (that is, having more than one side) (Crowley&Hoyer, 1994; Igou&Bless, 2003; Lumsdaine&Janis, 1953); timing (Haugtvedt&Wegener, 1994; Miller&Campbell, 1959), and whether both sides are presented. Messages that are more subtle are more persuasive than direct messages. Arguments that occur first, such as in a debate, are more influential if messages are given back-to-back. However, if there is a delay after the first message, and before the audience needs to make a decision, the last message presented will tend to be more persuasive (Miller&Campbell, 1959).

Features of the audience that affect persuasion are attention (Albarracín&Wyer, 2001; Festinger&Maccoby, 1964), intelligence, self-esteem (Rhodes&Wood, 1992), and age (Krosnick&Alwin, 1989). In order to be persuaded, audience members must be paying attention. People with lower intelligence are more easily persuaded than people with higher intelligence; whereas people with moderate self-esteem are more easily persuaded than people with higher or lower self-esteem (Rhodes&Wood, 1992). Finally, younger adults aged 18–25 are more persuadable than older adults.

Elaboration likelihood model

An especially popular model that describes the dynamics of persuasion is the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion (Petty&Cacioppo, 1986). The elaboration likelihood model considers the variables of the attitude change approach—that is, features of the source of the persuasive message, contents of the message, and characteristics of the audience are used to determine when attitude change will occur. According to the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, there are two main routes that play a role in delivering a persuasive message: central and peripheral ( [link] ).

A diagram shows two routes of persuasion. A box on the left is labeled “persuasive message” and arrows from the box separate into two routes: the central and peripheral routes, each with boxes describing the characteristics of the audience, processing, and persuasion. The audience is “motivated, analytical” in the central route, and “not motivated, not analytical” in the peripheral route. Processing in the central route is “high effort; evaluate message” and in the peripheral route is “low effort; persuaded by cues outside of message.” Persuasion in the central route is “lasting change in attitude” and in the peripheral route is “temporary change in attitude.”
Persuasion can take one of two paths, and the durability of the end result depends on the path.

The central route is logic driven and uses data and facts to convince people of an argument’s worthiness. For example, a car company seeking to persuade you to purchase their model will emphasize the car’s safety features and fuel economy. This is a direct route to persuasion that focuses on the quality of the information. In order for the central route of persuasion to be effective in changing attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors, the argument must be strong and, if successful, will result in lasting attitude change.

Questions & Answers

hello anyone interested in making a group to put together there own concepts, or perceptions of behavior in different political groups?
Josh Reply
count me in josh
Winson
sounds good..
Farzan
What is environmental psychology
rohini Reply
Environmental psychology focuses on the interplay between an individual and it's surroundings.
Liviu
what is criminal psychology
Wasana Reply
Criminal psychology, also referred to as criminological psychology, is the study of the wills, thoughts, intentions, and reactions of criminals and all that partakes in the criminal behavior. It is related to the field of criminal anthropology
Me
My Master degree is in Forensic Psychology. It is a science that is half psychology and half criminal justice
Mike
what is environmental psychology?
Doper Reply
if Someone can recommend any Practicing Psychologist Regards
Sajjad Reply
How do you communicated with someone who has a Narcissistic personality, and a womanizer? How do you get them to value your feelings and thoughts
Mrs. Reply
having a narcissistic-person as a partner in life can destroy your relationship especially if they're abusing you mentally.
Bonito
what does it mean if you keep losing your things?
Mahmoud Reply
hello everyone
Mahmoud
In what ways do the norms of your different cultures lead you to behave differently in your interactions with each other?
Aliza Reply
Which of the following is not a disadvantage of P.E.T. scanning
Kody Reply
sup I'm 14 and tired of this school *** so I'm doing private studies in my spare time
William Reply
Are you smarter than your teachers? I was. So, I found better ones. Like you are, William.
Candice
You don't have to be smarter than your teachers, at the end they teach what they been told, education system must change and give you the chance to learn things of your interest.
Ivan
William James, principles of psychology, 1890
Cristina Reply
is there any phyical harm or internal harm to the brains
Megharaj Reply
it depends since an accient or trauma can cause amnesia, etc...
nandini
I should choose psychology major because....?
Alexsus Reply
psychology is the study of human behavior and I do think we should talk more on what interests each of us
Captain
psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processing and how they are affected by an organism's physical state,mental state and environment
Macmel
or psychology is a science because it follows the scientific process in studying behaviiur and mental processing .behaviour include overt and covert ones ,mental processing include thought,emotion,perception ,reasoning processes ,memories and biological activities .
Macmel
the air of psychology is (1) describe (2)explain (3)predict and (4) help improve lives
Macmel
any this ler me know
Macmel
also know very well that .psychology has so many sub field .which deal with different cases . thank u
Macmel
hello all I am EDI GODWIN by name a student of psychology in Nigeria I was given assignment don't know if I can get help from you guys thanks
Edi Reply
how controller behavioural central psychological?
Abdulaziz Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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