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Features of the source of the persuasive message include the credibility of the speaker (Hovland&Weiss, 1951) and the physical attractiveness of the speaker (Eagly&Chaiken, 1975; Petty, Wegener,&Fabrigar, 1997). Thus, speakers who are credible, or have expertise on the topic, and who are deemed as trustworthy are more persuasive than less credible speakers. Similarly, more attractive speakers are more persuasive than less attractive speakers. The use of famous actors and athletes to advertise products on television and in print relies on this principle. The immediate and long term impact of the persuasion also depends, however, on the credibility of the messenger (Kumkale&Albarracín, 2004).

Features of the message itself that affect persuasion include subtlety (the quality of being important, but not obvious) (Petty&Cacioppo, 1986; Walster&Festinger, 1962); sidedness (that is, having more than one side) (Crowley&Hoyer, 1994; Igou&Bless, 2003; Lumsdaine&Janis, 1953); timing (Haugtvedt&Wegener, 1994; Miller&Campbell, 1959), and whether both sides are presented. Messages that are more subtle are more persuasive than direct messages. Arguments that occur first, such as in a debate, are more influential if messages are given back-to-back. However, if there is a delay after the first message, and before the audience needs to make a decision, the last message presented will tend to be more persuasive (Miller&Campbell, 1959).

Features of the audience that affect persuasion are attention (Albarracín&Wyer, 2001; Festinger&Maccoby, 1964), intelligence, self-esteem (Rhodes&Wood, 1992), and age (Krosnick&Alwin, 1989). In order to be persuaded, audience members must be paying attention. People with lower intelligence are more easily persuaded than people with higher intelligence; whereas people with moderate self-esteem are more easily persuaded than people with higher or lower self-esteem (Rhodes&Wood, 1992). Finally, younger adults aged 18–25 are more persuadable than older adults.

Elaboration likelihood model

An especially popular model that describes the dynamics of persuasion is the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion (Petty&Cacioppo, 1986). The elaboration likelihood model considers the variables of the attitude change approach—that is, features of the source of the persuasive message, contents of the message, and characteristics of the audience are used to determine when attitude change will occur. According to the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, there are two main routes that play a role in delivering a persuasive message: central and peripheral ( [link] ).

A diagram shows two routes of persuasion. A box on the left is labeled “persuasive message” and arrows from the box separate into two routes: the central and peripheral routes, each with boxes describing the characteristics of the audience, processing, and persuasion. The audience is “motivated, analytical” in the central route, and “not motivated, not analytical” in the peripheral route. Processing in the central route is “high effort; evaluate message” and in the peripheral route is “low effort; persuaded by cues outside of message.” Persuasion in the central route is “lasting change in attitude” and in the peripheral route is “temporary change in attitude.”
Persuasion can take one of two paths, and the durability of the end result depends on the path.

The central route is logic driven and uses data and facts to convince people of an argument’s worthiness. For example, a car company seeking to persuade you to purchase their model will emphasize the car’s safety features and fuel economy. This is a direct route to persuasion that focuses on the quality of the information. In order for the central route of persuasion to be effective in changing attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors, the argument must be strong and, if successful, will result in lasting attitude change.

Questions & Answers

Links don't work and images aren't displayed, any ideas?
Stoian Reply
I have fallen in love, but I don't get her and she doesn't love me. Now how can I forget her totally, because her memories everyday stressed me.
Torpic Reply
it takes a while to move on. it is normal you feel that way.
Nitzeli
try to keep your self busy... by doing many activities in a day.. then ull nt have much time to think abt tht... n slowly ull forget
sushritha
to think abt tht*
sushritha
I believe you should search the root of your despair the how did it happen and and why within yourself. Exactly what did you do or didn't and move on from that point. I called it ways of learning and Loving self more it will only help
Bill
try not to escape from the situation,deleting her memories will reduce ua power to accept the situation, take ua time to overcome der is no hurry, analyse well, understand that many love u but u don't love all of them, same is ua girl's case u love her but it's not necessary that she should love you
Anmol
its normal to fall inlove but we can't force them to feel the same way. just try to shift your mind into some other good activities and hobbies. it well help a lot and just try to appreciate those people around you who truthfully love and care for you.
Criselda
find new habits
paulpeter
engage yourself with reading books
reshaped
if she conquered your heart, then only another person will get u thru. if she did so to ur mind, then my friend, you'll forget her, gradually, but never wholly.
Akando
breathe
Intisar
did you tell her abt ur love?
Soundramanikandan
Then you need to let it go. it's a bitter pill to swallow, I can relate completely. but letting go of her is the only thing that will help you! stay strong my friend! remember that the night is darkest before dawn and that with hardship comes ease!
Hassunullah
Try to analyze y she avoided you. then work on the problem.
Soundramanikandan
Set life goals. Upgrade yourself everyday. Learn how you can be better than yesterday. When you become a better version of yourself everything will be different. Do it because of you, not because of her. After that you will have a clear vision, then you will know what to do. The key is inside you.
Nikola
we are the same 😪☹☹ and sometimes i suddenly feel sad 😪😪 and i wonder if the guy that i like was thinking of me too.
Marygrace
my sichuvation also same ...u forgot the her memories nd every thing thats it only na then look to other girl automatically u can forgoted
pavan
Think about her detramental quialities that annoyed you and this way you will stop being in love with her.
Nikol
Make urself busy as much as u can.
mahliqa
it is going to take time and yes try to be busy
Manzar
if the spinal cord is damaged will the brain still function properly
Olaniyi Reply
I believe it can cause some inflammation (which could cause some damage) but that would just result in lost nerves
Sophia
how will the nerve impulses from the rest of the body be relayed to the brain?
Himshikha
A question if anyone could help please. Can cbt help from waking up covered in sweat with the worst feeling's of dread, guilt and hopeless?
James Reply
Try to keep patience, this time will pass. And always do something that makes you happy. Have fun with your family and friends. Love this life, because we have got it one.
Torpic
for how long have you experience this?
Nitzeli
James, have you been able to identify the root causes or consulted with anyone...family or just a counselor even If on the phone with anyone? its terrible dread, sweating. I was there once if I may be open
Rick
I've been thinking of committing suicide
a5iahellgirl Reply
whatever it is that you are going through. it will end. things will work out and you ll emerge stronger than ever.
Senthil
y
sushritha
talk to us. the more you let it out. the more you ll be free
Senthil
I can't even put in words how incredibly sorry I feel hearing those words. Since I had depression for a long time(still sometimes do) and also thought about committing suicide and to this day are still struggling with anxiety I might know how you feel. Is there anything I can do to help you?
Blue
I also felt like that... heck... I still feel like that from time to time... but whenever I do I just run off to my family (my life...my heart) and give them a tight hug... u could do the same. it could be ur family or relatives... just hug no ques. asked trust me ... they will give you the answer
Iffat
I also felt like that... heck... I still feel like that from time to time... but whenever I do I just run off to my family (my life...my heart) and give them a tight hug... u could do the same. it could be ur family or relatives... just hug no ques. asked trust me ... they will give you the answer.
Iffat
suicide even though is the is the best way possible to get away frm this life has no worth... what ever u r going through im very sure tht it cant b more than the suffering tht the army men feel..... or is it bcz of some opportunity tht u dint get? if ths the case then my frend ans this question...
sushritha
does a cricket player think of committing suicide jus bcz he left a ball or got out?
sushritha
stand in front of the mirror try asking yourself.. why u feel like that in the first place?
Iffat
no right? he tries hard in the next match .. the same way.. i feel our life is a game of cricket n opportunity r like balls few strike n few may nt n the best part is u r in this game till u urself give up..
sushritha
I agree with sushritha... 100%
Iffat
well said ... my friend..
Iffat
"The victim should have the right to end his life, if he wants. But I think it would be a great mistake. However bad life may seem, there is always something you can do, and succeed at. While there's life, there is hope." ~Stephen Hawking
bharadwaj
my maternal grandpa used to do business in Kolkata back in 50's...
Iffat
amen to that... bharadwaj
Iffat
Yes sometimes it can be helpful but not always as in severe condition.
mantasha
wtevr happns , it can not be bad thn diying, bcz ones u r gone, u can nevee return, as long as you are here, you change things, not today but maybe be tomorrow, wtevet it is, it will pass by I promise, I jave gone through many distress full events in my life, n depression as well, i can feel it, but
Himani
today i appreciate that i did not take my life, though i tried many a time, but today i know, if i would hv died back then, nothing would have been btr, all the lives i have touched now n changed, all bcz i didnt die. you can help smone in furt, nothing more then at least in crossing the road, which
Himani
is a lot for many people
Himani
how to get a rid of addiction
deepak Reply
tell urself theres no such thing! talk your self into believing there is no such thing as addiction! spend time with yourself! think by yourself. trust yourself, believe in yourself but most importantly love yourself! because when u love yourself you wont let yourself go!
Whit
Well, getting help is one big step. Try to wean yourself off your addiction. I have a ski. disorder that makes me addicted to picking my skin, so to replace it I played with putty to keep my hands distracted. It's a healthy combination of self help and professional help
bill
skin*
bill
it depends on what kind of addiction it is, how long have you been consuming it, how strong is your will power and how stable you are as a person:)) it is good that you realized that you have an addiction, i think the next step is admitting yourself to a rehab clinic
Kristina
in addition--- just shut yourself from that addiction. do what you have to do in order not to indulge such things (avoid or even repel your access to "it") and keep CALM.. breath in breath out (he he) and tell yourself good job!!
Princeed
Any child psychologist out there ?
Tehseen Reply
what are the issues child psychologists deal with?
Tehseen
estimating about the child and his thinking in different situations as childs mind in unawares and unmatured and their brain thinks in an unorganized way
deepak
i would like to research depression as my topic for the research paper?
guyleine Reply
Good idea. What exactly about depression do you want to research? There is a whole to potentially research.
aemilius
I hope I would b able to guide you
Himani
Anyone majoring in psychology in college. I wonder what it's like.
Asha
I am a psych major
Deniz
It is great but there are a lot of statistics classes also.
Deniz
how do I manage my mood swings? I m tired and sick of it.
samed Reply
A)Go see a professional to find out if it's anything serious. B)If not just work through it in time with help.
Ferdi
Also, doing physical activity helps with this.
Cezar
play games it's helps you
hanu
I write my feelings in a journal. Note why am I feeling this way and remember I have the power to change because I am in control of my mind and body
Yah
look in CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy), Work on personnel development (we can all get better step by step) , Start exercising,walks and meditation. I'd like to recommend you a motivational speaker you should look into and follow. 'Lisa Nichols'. best wishes :)
Zetharias
I am going to look her up to. We all have to work on our personal development and it is a lifetime process. Practice makes perfect
Yah
practice mindfulness for 30 seconds a day. during those 30 seconds manage your breathing then decide which trait you wanna bring out the most for the next hours, my personal favorite are patience and persistence
Andrea
Sorry but what is the topic ? 😊
Dani Reply
what is "measurement of self?"
manisha Reply
taking a guess here and saying that it's how you evaluate the image of yourself according to concepts/constructs constructed by society or yourself, and if you meet those standards
Johan
through introspection
nafeesa
how much clear is your mind and thought process
deepak
what's the best wanton treat this?
DARRIN Reply
What is abnormality
Aaki Reply
Abnormality is a behavioral characteristic assigned to those with conditions regarded as rare or dysfunctional. Behavior is considered abnormal when it is atypical or out of the ordinary, consists of undesirable behavior, and results in impairment in the individual's functionality.
Khursheede
How many criteria of abnormality
Aaki
I think they are about 3 or 4 criteria for abnormality
Rofiat
what is self development and social cognition
saad Reply
Personal development is a lifelong process. It is a way for people to assess their skills and qualities, consider their aims in life and set goals in order to realise and maximise their potential.
Zetharias
self development is growing as a person, as well as increasing your understanding of who you are. It usually includes changing habits, and getting a better mind set. essentially it is becoming who you want to be.
Kaniel
Where have I first heard of Freud? I think that was in a movie or series a long time ago. I can't remember in which one though. The name was familiar to me for a long time. However until my interest in psychology rose a few years back I did not know who he was.
aemilius Reply
You heard it in movie Titanic by Rose when she was young and attending a first class party or lunch , she asks other do you know about such a thing by Freud
Vijay

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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