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Racism is prevalent toward many other groups in the United States including Native Americans, Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, and Asian Americans. Have you witnessed racism toward any of these racial or ethnic groups? Are you aware of racism in your community?

One reason modern forms of racism, and prejudice in general, are hard to detect is related to the dual attitudes model (Wilson, Lindsey,&Schooler, 2000). Humans have two forms of attitudes: explicit attitudes, which are conscious and controllable, and implicit attitudes, which are unconscious and uncontrollable (Devine, 1989; Olson&Fazio, 2003). Because holding egalitarian views is socially desirable (Plant&Devine, 1998), most people do not show extreme racial bias or other prejudices on measures of their explicit attitudes. However, measures of implicit attitudes often show evidence of mild to strong racial bias or other prejudices (Greenwald, McGee,&Schwartz, 1998; Olson&Fazio, 2003).

Sexism

Sexism is prejudice    and discrimination    toward individuals based on their sex. Typically, sexism takes the form of men holding biases against women, but either sex can show sexism toward their own or their opposite sex. Like racism, sexism may be subtle and difficult to detect. Common forms of sexism in modern society include gender role expectations, such as expecting women to be the caretakers of the household. Sexism also includes people’s expectations for how members of a gender group should behave. For example, women are expected to be friendly, passive, and nurturing, and when women behave in an unfriendly, assertive, or neglectful manner they often are disliked for violating their gender role (Rudman, 1998). Research by Laurie Rudman (1998) finds that when female job applicants self-promote, they are likely to be viewed as competent, but they may be disliked and are less likely to be hired because they violated gender expectations for modesty. Sexism can exist on a societal level such as in hiring, employment opportunities, and education. Women are less likely to be hired or promoted in male-dominated professions such as engineering, aviation, and construction ( [link] ) (Blau, Ferber,&Winkler, 2010; Ceci&Williams, 2011). Have you ever experienced or witnessed sexism? Think about your family members’ jobs or careers. Why do you think there are differences in the jobs women and men have, such as more women nurses but more male surgeons (Betz, 2008)?

A photograph shows an armed female soldier among a group of soldiers.
Women now have many jobs previously closed to them, though they still face challenges in male-dominated occupations. (credit: "Alex"/Flickr)

Ageism

People often form judgments and hold expectations about people based on their age. These judgments and expectations can lead to ageism    , or prejudice    and discrimination    toward individuals based solely on their age. Typically, ageism occurs against older adults, but ageism also can occur toward younger adults. Think of expectations you hold for older adults. How could someone’s expectations influence the feelings they hold toward individuals from older age groups? Ageism is widespread in U.S. culture (Nosek, 2005), and a common ageist attitude toward older adults is that they are incompetent, physically weak, and slow (Greenberg, Schimel,&Martens, 2002) and some people consider older adults less attractive. Some cultures, however, including some Asian, Latino, and African American cultures, both outside and within the United States afford older adults respect and honor.

Questions & Answers

what does attribution means?
Vamsi Reply
I have the same doubt... As we can search for meaning... But not able to understand the concept
SNEHAL
yes
Vamsi
atttibution is a social cognitive function that allows us to give, to attribute, feelings of thoughts to somebody that's not ourself. for example I can say that my friend is feeling sad today for some reasons because I can consider that my friend is different than me. does it help ?
Perle
Thank you Perle.Can I get another example?
Vamsi
imagine you are walking in the street and you see someone smiling. you can think "oh this person looks happy"
Perle
basically it's the ability to understand that others are not you and they can have their own feelings or thoughts
Perle
Thank you so much.
Vamsi
wait wait. my last example is wrong. seeing someone smiling and think they're happy is the theory of mind, not attribution
Perle
Okay
Suman
Is this definition correct "basically it's the ability to understand that others are not you and they can have their own feelings or thoughts."
Vamsi
yup ☺
Perle
but social cognitive functions are tricky. theory of mind and attribution are quite close !
Perle
Then can you please give me another example.
Vamsi
please what arw the two main ways of controlling behaviour?
Gifty Reply
patience and meditation
ChandraKumar
any one ,what is bio psychological model
EXTRA
Bio psychological model means bio means body and psychological means mind so bio psychological model is studies mind and body relationships
Nilamani
daily prayers and daily affirmations and daily excercise
Alban
and what is health belief model?
EXTRA
what us psychology
Ndeh Reply
psychology is the study of mind. And also the study of human behavior.
Simisola
yeah
Oruta
thank you
Ndeh
Ok
Oruta
You're welcome.
Simisola
psychology is the systematic study of human and animal mind and its mental processes.
Christopher
psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behaviour...And it also includes the study of animals as well as humans.
kelson
Psychology is the scientific and systematic study of mental activities, behavior and cognitive process of organism to relationships between it's environment...
Nilamani
yes
Ahsan
What could be some short term and long terms goals one can have,in order to become an education psychologist?
Hibba Reply
hmmm
Maaruf
Short term: - contact a school psychologist and shadow them for a few days - study and keep up with college coursework - join psychology club/ groups Long term: - transfer to a 4 year university - choose wisely your graduate school - talk to graduates from those schools
Isela
thank you Isela Huerta :)
Hibba
how to recognize the person with psychological disorders?
Nawaz
Please keep in mind that it's not allowed to promote any social groups (whatsapp, facebook, etc...), exchange phone numbers, email addresses or ask for personal information on QuizOver's platform.
QuizOver Reply
I want to start psychology courses, which one would you suggest i do first, and why? Im about to move to a different place.
Amanda Reply
open university
rauhahenki
it goes in chronological order, so to speak
rauhahenki
thank you
Amanda
how is Coursera is this matter, what's the best MOOC source?
Suvigya
Could you recommend any online course that would be useful for the purpose. Open university such as?
Swati
post Graduation.... Diploma In Counseling
srikanth
Psychopharmacology
srikanth
Lot Of Courses.... in Which Side You Wanna Go In Particular?
srikanth
oh. well i wish to study before i go into college. counseling sounds good, people like to come to me for advise, and i am very detail oriented and love creative art stuff.
Amanda
@Swati have you tried Coursera
Suvigya
Child Counseling Abnormal Behaviors Addiction's - Rehabilitation Marriage Counseling and A lot More...
srikanth
Which University should I enroll for a Counseling Psychology.
Emmanuel
Yes, I've checked that. Are they good enough to start with? @suvigya
Swati
Yes, online university? Suggestions on that?
Swati
@srikanth i am in usa going to a different state/province. so online makes more sense. is it possible to be really good in more than one ☺
Amanda
yes i agree any suggestions for online university. or just where we can take courses/classes, partial university
Amanda
yah There is A lot of Certification Courses In ONLINE... And Distance Education..
srikanth
thank you for the responses
Amanda
can any 1 tell me how to how to joint indian army as Psychologist
Gaurav
can someone tell me which are some popular certification courses?
pavithra
For Psychologist
Gaurav
family Counselling. @Pavithra Nair..
srikanth
thanks
pavithra
hy
Jennifer
Any one knows where to find Free courses with certification in psychology?
Gian
It Depends On Place Where You Live In
srikanth
in Telangana Osmania University They Offered Different PG Diploma Courses They Collect Minimum Fee It's Too Low... 5k to 6k In Indian Currency
srikanth
Free online courses, without country bounds, do you know some?
Gian
what is motivation?
Shair Reply
The good feeling of wanting to go forward; to a dream, wish or making yourself a better present or future.
Amanda
it could be intrinsic( as mentioned above) as well as extrinsic( salary etc. ) sometimes extrinsic motivation is detrimental to intrinsic..such that it takes away the enjoyment or zeal of doing that thing
Avish
it is the reason for a particular behavior or action.
Champro
hello Everyone..... I Need Some Information.... I've Completed Msc. Psychology In Hyderabad... How Can I Be A Approved Psychologist?
srikanth Reply
haha
Amit
hay Buddy... if You Can Help Me Let Me Know...
srikanth
ask your university, they should know, or contact a psychologist and they might be able to help you. best of luck.
Mahmoud
thank you Mahmoud Al..
srikanth
Motivation results in
Cute Reply
progress to success
SK
peace I think I have bipolarity disorder I don't want to see a psychologist in this concern how can stop having swings in moods and depression?
Imen Reply
try to meditate
Mahmoud
Meditation in this aspect will worsen the condition. please contact a psychologist
ruchi
why exactly should we meditate!!?
sanskar
you need a cognitive behavioral therapist, meditation will worsen
Suvigya
just 2 sessions changed my bipolar habits and saved my relationship with family and my partner, it is life saving
Suvigya
What does chronic mean?
ThisKidOverHere Reply
Occurring over a period of time, at least 2 weeks or more
Wayne
chronic is human health condition/disease which decode diabetes,cancer etc.
SK
In thinking about the case of Candace described earlier, do you think that Candace benefitted or suffered as a result of consistently being passed on to the next grade?
LuRay Reply
what is a narcissist
Denise Reply
Can newborns develop bad traits
Denise
isnt narcissist a chronic liar?
Steph
I believe newborns can
Steph
newborns starts to develop habits from 6-10 months after birth so sometimes they make bad traits
Poorvi
dominating personality
Deepak
are narcissists chronic liar?
Deepak
I feel like we learn things over Time and then apply these traits (whether bad or good) in our daily lives,but since new born are still very small they can't yet (unless they reach around the toddler phase)
Hibba
narcissistic person is a that type of person who loves himself only very much.....if somebody tells them anything they become very angry....
ChandraKumar
Yes, It's correct
SRINIVASULU
please which is the best school to study masters in psychology?
Anastasia
at 6-10 months you are no longer a newborn. newborns, however, only have traits consistent with survival and comfort. good and bad then, are perceptive consequences of the onlooker. a newborn will cry when hungry, sleep when tired or overwhelmed; these are traits of dependance not good or bad
Thaddeus
narcissist are only chronic liars to themselves. they need to lie in order to feel in control/over and above any and everybody else.
Thaddeus
what is psychology?
Philip Reply
psychology is the study of mental processes and behaviour
Abdul
of human beings.
Abdul
psyche (mind)+ -ology (study of) hence means study of mind
Psyche also refers to soul. it is also used to be called study of soul. but this is old definition.
Abdul
what does Hedonist mean?
Happy Reply
a person whose actions are solely motivated by personal pleasure, without any care about if and how it hurts anyone.
It's the doctrine of Aristippus, that pleasure or happiness is the chief good and chief end of man (Greek- hedone, pleasure).
a person who always seeks pleasure...a person who believes that pleasure is everything
Poorvi
Hedonism, as compared to the sexualvalues of relativism and absolutism, involves sexual behavior based on the pursuit of pleasure without the requirement for love and/or commitment.
in short, sex without feelings.
sex without feelings, just like make up with dolls😂
Smith
well, yes, it could involve that, but extreme cases, a person could start violating others so as to satiate his own libido. Sex with dolls and stuff is quite small stuff compared to that. Basically, what pleases them, they do, so are quite dangerous in that sense.
Why do you think red room and stuff exist? for the pleasure of few, but still, for pleasure. Freud indeed was right in pointing out the cause of all evil in the world- sex.
yes but still some people engage themselves in sex without any feeling ...eg.prostitution
Poorvi
@poorvi umm.. that's like saying the people who didn't help the Jews were Nazis, disregarding the fact that their hands were tied, and they could've done otherwise even if they tried to. how many of the prostitutes are true nymphomaniacs? quite a few to none.
But how many were forced to it by circumstances, or even trafficked? many to almost 90%. from homelessness to loans, even drug addiction, that's a major cause as well.
they can't be called hedonists, for they are not. though they could be, if that is, they are nymphomaniacs
you're absolutely right...but how can a person lose the addiction of pleasures ?
Poorvi
hello
Bindas
enjoying pleasure is a base human characteristic, it's being a slave to them, so much so that you refuse to recognize needs and exercise care of others in front of your own pleasures, that is dangerous and should be rid of.
Christianity tried to curb it, but instead ended up declaring sex in itself wrong. several ways were introduced for this, from Chastity belts to whips for giving in to the evil of the temptation, hell even looking for too long at someone.
again as Freud said, religion tried to kill sex, it didn't die, but became poisonous instead.
yes correct
Bindas
hey I just love psychology bcz I wanna improve myself through psychology...so can I ?
Poorvi
help can be sought for this, don't, I repeat DON'T try these orthodox methods, they work not
yes you can, start off small, but from the greats, Freud and Jung, you'll know much of psychology by just studying these two
Orthodox methods means ?
Poorvi
yk, trying to completely avoid pleasures, for as Osho said, prohibition becomes invitation. 'No Graffiti Zone' has the most graffiti. write don't peep inside on a door ajar and almost every passerby will peep in. so if you try to completely be void of desires then they'll only grow on you
(was still talking about pleasure and how to get rid of it 😅)
hey..I'm the student of class 11and I'm trying to engage myself more in studies...in simple words I wanna change myself I wanna improve myself ...I wanna be a good girl...plz plzz suggest some tips and how can I change my thinking and life..
Poorvi
that's why I was asking about the pleasure psychology
Poorvi
it'll be even better if you have a philosophical background as well.
yes I have that too...I'm biggest fan of osho and buddha
Poorvi
first things first poorvi, I don't know you, but unless you've hurt someone real real bad, like they couldn't heal, I'll say you ARE a good girl. so with that in mind, how to improve yourself even further? well, if it's studies then it depends on which line of study are you planning to pursue?
but wait who were Freud and Jung
Poorvi
they are Giants in the field of psychology, two most prominent schools are Jungian and Freudian. (Carl Gustav Jung and Sigmund Freud)
I wanna be a doctor and trying to pursue this goal
Poorvi
any specific branch in mind? like cardio or surgery or anything?
yaa oncology .. cancer surgeon bcz I wanna give the treatment to the weak section of our country who can't afford the treatment
Poorvi
ok, so your vocation has been decided for you by your parents. never mind, for it can't be changed and you will probably not agree to this, saying no you personally feel so.
by the way what you do or what you wanna be ?even what is your name
Poorvi
Anyway, the most important thing for you right now will be to not let your mind wander, to properly focus your chakras. I'll advise you to revise your study and sleep schedule so as to include a minimum of ½ hour to 1 hour study a day to max 2½ hours to ౩½ hours.
the name is Ckbite, you can look me up on insta, or Google me
and don't sit at a stretch to study for long, that way disinterest will seep in.
I can study max 4-5 hrs only...omg I can google you 😯😯
Poorvi
break your study hours into little packets of one one hour (or half, your call) and take a ten minute minimum break in between to get your mind back
thanks for suggestion but dear its hard to follow 😌
Poorvi
yes, have written some stuff, not proud of it, yet not ashamed either. though I'll advise you to not to read it, it's kinda instigating.
it ain't. I myself am from both math and science background, PCBM, and followed this tactic scoring not much, yet still a grand 82 percent
which one do you like most bio or maths ? are you doing mbbs ?
Poorvi
hated both equally, got out and into a totally different stream after 12. am not much of a sucker for mainstream stuff
don't study at stretch, but in small small periods. next, get notes from Allen, arrange for them, they really help. next, set small goals, not that you have to finish this whole chapter in a week, but that you have to cover these two pages in two days or something, that way when you'll accomplish -
that, your brain will produce the reward hormones (I forget the name) and you will stay interested and it might even become fun, and kinda challenging
hmm ok I'll try
Poorvi
are you talking about the dopamine ?
Poorvi
don't compare to others, but try and defeat your own time. like I had completed two pages in two days, today I'll try three pages in two days.
seems odd I know, childish even,but that's the way brain works, if it senses youre doing great, it puts in even more effort
after taking break engag in studies again is too difficult
Poorvi
it's easy, mark your last read spot, and when you get back, start from a or two paragraphs before that, so that you can catch the thread once again
after taking breaks mind says "hey no need to do study again...just play and have fun"
Poorvi
that's why set a fix time quota for a day, like if it's 2 hours you Have to study two hours, and it doesn't work in the long run,but for starters you can try the reward system
like if I study this much, I can watch this movie I wanted to. you know, keep your brain interested, as though it's a game, that's how you have to play. mind is a funny thing, but fooling it is quite easy
okay I got you...thanks
Poorvi
hey I couldn't find your page but can you msg me on i_believe_in_your_dreams...dp is of red coloured and the recent post is of blue colour
Poorvi
You don't get rid of it. You control it, not let ot control you.
Amanda

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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