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Storage

Once the information has been encoded, we have to somehow have to retain it. Our brains take the encoded information and place it in storage. Storage is the creation of a permanent record of information.

In order for a memory to go into storage (i.e., long-term memory), it has to pass through three distinct stages: Sensory Memory , Short-Term Memory , and finally Long-Term Memory . These stages were first proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin (1968). Their model of human memory ( [link] ), called Atkinson-Shiffrin (A-S), is based on the belief that we process memories in the same way that a computer processes information.

A flow diagram consists of four boxes with connecting arrows. The first box is labeled “sensory input.” An arrow leads to the second box, which is labeled “sensory memory.” An arrow leads to the third box which is labeled “short-term memory (STM).” An arrow points to the fourth box, labeled “long-term memory (LTM),” and an arrow points in the reverse direction from the fourth to the third box. Above the short-term memory box, an arrow leaves the top-right of the box and curves around to point back to the top-left of the box; this arrow is labeled “rehearsal.” Both the “sensory memory” and “short-term memory” boxes have an arrow beneath them pointing to the text “information not transferred is lost.”
According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory, information passes through three distinct stages in order for it to be stored in long-term memory.

But A-S is just one model of memory. Others, such as Baddeley and Hitch (1974), have proposed a model where short-term memory itself has different forms. In this model, storing memories in short-term memory is like opening different files on a computer and adding information. The type of short-term memory (or computer file) depends on the type of information received. There are memories in visual-spatial form, as well as memories of spoken or written material, and they are stored in three short-term systems: a visuospatial sketchpad, an episodic buffer, and a phonological loop. According to Baddeley and Hitch, a central executive part of memory supervises or controls the flow of information to and from the three short-term systems.

Sensory memory

In the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, stimuli from the environment are processed first in sensory memory    : storage of brief sensory events, such as sights, sounds, and tastes. It is very brief storage—up to a couple of seconds. We are constantly bombarded with sensory information. We cannot absorb all of it, or even most of it. And most of it has no impact on our lives. For example, what was your professor wearing the last class period? As long as the professor was dressed appropriately, it does not really matter what she was wearing. Sensory information about sights, sounds, smells, and even textures, which we do not view as valuable information, we discard. If we view something as valuable, the information will move into our short-term memory system.

One study of sensory memory researched the significance of valuable information on short-term memory storage. J. R. Stroop discovered a memory phenomenon in the 1930s: you will name a color more easily if it appears printed in that color, which is called the Stroop effect . In other words, the word “red” will be named more quickly, regardless of the color the word appears in, than any word that is colored red. Try an experiment: name the colors of the words you are given in [link] . Do not read the words, but say the color the word is printed in. For example, upon seeing the word “yellow” in green print, you should say “green,” not “yellow.” This experiment is fun, but it’s not as easy as it seems.

Several names of colors appear in a font color that is different from the name of the color. For example, the word “red” is colored blue.
The Stroop effect describes why it is difficult for us to name a color when the word and the color of the word are different.

Questions & Answers

hello anyone interested in making a group to put together there own concepts, or perceptions of behavior in different political groups?
Josh Reply
count me in josh
Winson
sounds good..
Farzan
What is environmental psychology
rohini Reply
Environmental psychology focuses on the interplay between an individual and it's surroundings.
Liviu
what is criminal psychology
Wasana Reply
Criminal psychology, also referred to as criminological psychology, is the study of the wills, thoughts, intentions, and reactions of criminals and all that partakes in the criminal behavior. It is related to the field of criminal anthropology
Me
My Master degree is in Forensic Psychology. It is a science that is half psychology and half criminal justice
Mike
what is environmental psychology?
Doper Reply
if Someone can recommend any Practicing Psychologist Regards
Sajjad Reply
How do you communicated with someone who has a Narcissistic personality, and a womanizer? How do you get them to value your feelings and thoughts
Mrs. Reply
having a narcissistic-person as a partner in life can destroy your relationship especially if they're abusing you mentally.
Bonito
what does it mean if you keep losing your things?
Mahmoud Reply
hello everyone
Mahmoud
In what ways do the norms of your different cultures lead you to behave differently in your interactions with each other?
Aliza Reply
Which of the following is not a disadvantage of P.E.T. scanning
Kody Reply
sup I'm 14 and tired of this school *** so I'm doing private studies in my spare time
William Reply
Are you smarter than your teachers? I was. So, I found better ones. Like you are, William.
Candice
You don't have to be smarter than your teachers, at the end they teach what they been told, education system must change and give you the chance to learn things of your interest.
Ivan
William James, principles of psychology, 1890
Cristina Reply
is there any phyical harm or internal harm to the brains
Megharaj Reply
it depends since an accient or trauma can cause amnesia, etc...
nandini
I should choose psychology major because....?
Alexsus Reply
psychology is the study of human behavior and I do think we should talk more on what interests each of us
Captain
psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processing and how they are affected by an organism's physical state,mental state and environment
Macmel
or psychology is a science because it follows the scientific process in studying behaviiur and mental processing .behaviour include overt and covert ones ,mental processing include thought,emotion,perception ,reasoning processes ,memories and biological activities .
Macmel
the air of psychology is (1) describe (2)explain (3)predict and (4) help improve lives
Macmel
any this ler me know
Macmel
also know very well that .psychology has so many sub field .which deal with different cases . thank u
Macmel
hello all I am EDI GODWIN by name a student of psychology in Nigeria I was given assignment don't know if I can get help from you guys thanks
Edi Reply
how controller behavioural central psychological?
Abdulaziz Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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