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In developing their scale, Holmes and Rahe asked 394 participants to provide a numerical estimate for each of the 43 items; each estimate corresponded to how much readjustment participants felt each event would require. These estimates resulted in mean value scores for each event—often called life change units (LCUs) (Rahe, McKeen,&Arthur, 1967). The numerical scores ranged from 11 to 100, representing the perceived magnitude of life change each event entails. Death of a spouse ranked highest on the scale with 100 LCUs, and divorce ranked second highest with 73 LCUs. In addition, personal injury or illness, marriage, and job termination also ranked highly on the scale with 53, 50, and 47 LCUs, respectively. Conversely, change in residence (20 LCUs), change in eating habits (15 LCUs), and vacation (13 LCUs) ranked low on the scale ( [link] ). Minor violations of the law ranked the lowest with 11 LCUs. To complete the scale, participants checked yes for events experienced within the last 12 months. LCUs for each checked item are totaled for a score quantifying the amount of life change. Agreement on the amount of adjustment required by the various life events on the SRRS is highly consistent, even cross-culturally (Holmes&Masuda, 1974).

Some stressors on the social readjustment rating scale (holmes&Rahe, 1967)
Life event Life change units
Death of a close family member 63
Personal injury or illness 53
Dismissal from work 47
Change in financial state 38
Change to different line of work 36
Outstanding personal achievement 28
Beginning or ending school 26
Change in living conditions 25
Change in working hours or conditions 20
Change in residence 20
Change in schools 20
Change in social activities 18
Change in sleeping habits 16
Change in eating habits 15
Minor violation of the law 11

Extensive research has demonstrated that accumulating a high number of life change units within a brief period of time (one or two years) is related to a wide range of physical illnesses (even accidents and athletic injuries) and mental health problems (Monat&Lazarus, 1991; Scully, Tosi,&Banning, 2000). In an early demonstration, researchers obtained LCU scores for U.S. and Norwegian Navy personnel who were about to embark on a six-month voyage. A later examination of medical records revealed positive (but small) correlations between LCU scores prior to the voyage and subsequent illness symptoms during the ensuing six-month journey (Rahe, 1974). In addition, people tend to experience more physical symptoms, such as backache, upset stomach, diarrhea, and acne, on specific days in which self-reported LCU values are considerably higher than normal, such as the day of a family member’s wedding (Holmes&Holmes, 1970).

The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) provides researchers a simple, easy-to-administer way of assessing the amount of stress in people’s lives, and it has been used in hundreds of studies (Thoits, 2010). Despite its widespread use, the scale has been subject to criticism. First, many of the items on the SRRS are vague; for example, death of a close friend could involve the death of a long-absent childhood friend that requires little social readjustment (Dohrenwend, 2006). In addition, some have challenged its assumption that undesirable life events are no more stressful than desirable ones (Derogatis&Coons, 1993). However, most of the available evidence suggests that, at least as far as mental health is concerned, undesirable or negative events are more strongly associated with poor outcomes (such as depression) than are desirable, positive events (Hatch&Dohrenwend, 2007). Perhaps the most serious criticism is that the scale does not take into consideration respondents’ appraisals of the life events it contains. As you recall, appraisal of a stressor is a key element in the conceptualization and overall experience of stress. Being fired from work may be devastating to some but a welcome opportunity to obtain a better job for others. The SRRS remains one of the most well-known instruments in the study of stress, and it is a useful tool for identifying potential stress-related health outcomes (Scully et al., 2000).

Questions & Answers

Can unconscious cognitive experience easly be realized
Tanam Reply
no it's not possible
Tanzila
yes it's not possible
Sana
ok
ashish
care to go into a little more detail?
Estevan
the way our mind works, people often make decisions without having given them much thought or more precisely, before they have thought about them consciously
Sana
yes but it needs a lot of observation
Parvez
hi Im a psychology student
antonette
not easy but through reflection it can pass through four phases, self-control, self-understanding, self-discovery, self-discovery!
Diferent
hi antonette!in which year?
Diferent
I'm a second year student. from phil
antonette
Im from Phil too! :O, but not psychology lol
dummy
i have one problem. But i do not know. it's what type of problem means mental or physical. may you help me? plz... anybody have here?
sabuj
who is your favorit books?antonette
Diferent
@dummyrabbit where in phil?
antonette
what problem sabuj?
Diferent
@sabujhossain i'll try my best.
antonette
honestly I love to read Readest Digest. it's my grandpa's favorite book also
antonette
I don't know him🤔
Diferent
maybe it can be realized but doesnt a unconscious cognitive once realized become a conscious expirence could someone give an example
jagraj
Aproximetlly 10 years before i am suffering some problems. I am feeling headache, giddiness sometimes I see something in front of my eye. This problem I share with my doctor. And doctor ask me night time what time you go to bed. And sleep enough or not. I say, yes my sleep is enough. Everyday I try.
sabuj
haiiii guyzz
Sherali
Sabuj it seems u need to consult a doctor and should also go for counselling
Anindya
So doctor give me one medicine. Medicine name is flopentixal and melitracin. If I take this medicine I feel OK. But if I stop it I can't control myself. So I take it continuously. 1 months before i stop this medication. So I feel something problem. So how can I stop this medication.
sabuj
Go for counselling. U need to tlk ur heart out
Anindya
This one what type of problem. Plz help me.
sabuj
Sobuj where do u stay?
Anindya
Singapore
sabuj
But Singapore Doctor say your doctor why give this medicine I don't know. But you try to stop it. Better for you. Because this medicine take only mental problem man.
sabuj
Ok. The medication will hlp u to manage urslf better, bt go for counselling. Hope u'll able to get over it. One more thing don't that u r ill or in a critical problem. In life sometimes we get confused, sad, demotivated and that's absolutely ok. Go for counselling it'll be helpful
Anindya
*Don't think that u r...... Srry fr the err
Anindya
Thank you Anindya Shankar
sabuj
Wlcme
Anindya
sabuj make you nervous?
Diferent
ok so hii im 13 I am extremely onto psychology. I think I have depression. I googled the symtoms and took quizes and I have moderately severe depression. can someone help me please
jamie Reply
Hi...
Qwert
hey, is there anyone you feel comfortable enough with to talk to? maybe a parent or teacher ? x
Lisa-Marie
I love on having a self time
Qwert
Hey Jamie, it's good that you came here. as Lisa-Marie said, you should talk to a teacher or parent and they will probably refer you to your gp who will decide which steps should be taken next.
Leon
You will probably be offered some form of talking therapy such as cognitive behavioural therapy where you will be encouraged to challenge irrational thoughts. It might be difficult for you to talk to a teacher or parent about this but you definitely should.
Leon
Depression is treatable and everyone will try to support you
Leon
very well said Leon .. everyone is here for you, you are not alone .. you've taken the first step now :D we are all here to support you x
Lisa-Marie
Heeey Jamie good on you for being able to express yourself you are after all in a support group one think I can suggest that helped me is positive affirmations motivation speeches on YouTube in the morning it really helped me get out of bed and it helped though a low and stressful childhood
Michael
I've had that experience. What helped me get through my depression, was learning more about my situation. I stop questioning other things and got in touch with my own emotions and where they came from. Other's would call it self examination. The first thing I asked myself was how and why.
Kia
Greetings, Jamie. I am astoundingly happy that you have come out voice your depression! I revere you for doing so. However, I encourage you to see a medical professional, such as a therapist, or other doctor. It is excellent that you have taken the first, intentional step in evaluating yourself.
J.
It is to make sure, truly, that you do have severe clinical depression. And not be mislead by a website, or misinformation. I re-emphaise, good job on being open.
J.
Where did it come from? and how did I get there. I wrote these questions down daily for everything and answered them. You must be open with yourself and not afraid to be honest with yourself. This is how I got through. Self Talk but in ✍. I believe you'll do well.
Kia
it might not easy for you but as for me, I just fine something I like to do and get away with bad stuff and somehow as time pass by, I did not feel depressed anymore, even though I have no one to talk too. I'm 17.
Kamil
something that's helped me when I was depressed was when I woke up. id walk to the mirror and say to myself. Im happy, I'm Healthy, And I'm alive. I still do to this day. I hope that may help you.-15 year old trying to help
Logan
do exercises .. play go out do nothing but go out roam . try talking . watch movies, comedy.
Seeram
hi
ashish
Hi Jamie. Sorry to learn u are facing a hard phase. Your age is vry crucial one. Don't try to diagnose by yourself, try to get hlp frm the elder members of the family. There will be a lot of happenings in ur mind, don't think too much abt them and jst try to focus on the flow.
Anindya
But if u r unable to do ur day-to-day tasks don't hesitate or try to fix tht by urslf, go get hlp. God bless.
Anindya
In your definition, what is Imagination? Picture yourself explaining it to a 6 year old child.
J. Reply
it is a cognitive process used in mental function.
Rushna
Excellent. However, provided a child reads this, will they be able to understand what you wrote on the spot?
J.
Then u may say imaginations are those pictures which u think of when you can think whatever you want to
Anindya
this conversation was very informative
juan
this has actually been helpful, thank you
Leon
haha interesting question! imagination is something abstarkte and there are no limitations within the flare for different happenings. image to children such as animism where the toys the children consider to be alive.
Diferent
when I grow up I'll be prince ..etc
Diferent
Videos nice. Bt needed fr a six yrs old
Anindya
I think to a 6 year old imagination is ur brain creting its own stories and thoughts without stealing other people's
jamie
creating*
jamie
Go Phuck Yourself... Ain't You Hv Any Work...
Qwert
what are the personality disorders
Nigel Reply
go to google!write it.
Diferent
attachments that get a variety of goals done
Jose Reply
some goals have more than one checkpoint
Jose
true
miss
true everything is like root. you need to split your goal to make tree stand straight.
wish
true
ali
yes true
Touch
im on chp emotion and motivition
Jose Reply
hm
ali
that point was deep, motionable.
Jose
what
miss
thoughts can have momentum to them. . . hmm just jotting
Jose
a single goal has many checkpoints, demomstrating reasonable courage through each, with a change in conscious attitude. . . stability goals.
Jose
self encouragement
Jose
motivations(reasons) that help maintain balanced good character
Jose
hi
jamie
who has father of modern psychology?
pravin Reply
I have him and you can get him back for 100 million :)
Himshikha
who was the father of modern psychology?
pravin
Sigmund Freud
vishav
it's true vashav?
pravin
tnx
pravin
The "Father of modern psychiatry". Philippe Pinel's "release from chains" of 1793 and the beginning of the "science of psychiatry"]. 
ali
Freud is the father of modern Psychology that's what my batcholrs and masters in psychology taught me
Pradeep
follow books not Google
Pradeep
not everything is in your books, captian.
juan
What are some good books for a beginner in Criminal Psychology?
Nick
start in forensics
Rick
but you got to start off in psych 1200 it may give you a different direction in which to go. so many branches
Rick
in any case best of luck to you...are you looking for profiling?
Rick
david v canter forensic psychology for dummies!Nick.
Diferent
How dose stress differ from someone with dimincha an without dimincha
Zack Reply
I don't know Zack ,but they say talking to yourself is ok ,but awnsering your self is a bad thing.😂
Zack
what is the pre scientific psychology?
Lusia Reply
psychology that used "introspection" to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. Functionalism. a school ofpsychology that focused on how mental and behavior processes function - how they enable and allow organisms to adapt, survive, and flourish.
ali
was the belief in god and the state of mind, the various religions! The psychological psychology lab was founded in 1879, but as a serious science, brain work began to be successful when anti-depressant characters and antipsychotic drugs were discovered!
Diferent
but angels this is history after being psychological science itself!
Diferent
expert through realistic history
Jose
hi friends......... i have a confusion about the question
shaima Reply
which one friend?
Jose
What is trephination
Monica Reply
skinning of the skull! It was used earlier when science is not advanced! is still rarely used, the reason for filling the brain with oxygen, depression etc
Diferent
how to overcome anxiety
Swapnodeep Reply
how to overcome fear of people
Swapnodeep
exposure and meditation(im not a trained professional lol but it helped me) ask yourself why you are scared
juan
couldn't agree more Juan Roa exposure is the best thing if your scared or nervous to do something you.should do it because it tempary and you'll over come it when you get through the discomfort to a new comfort it's all about stages you grow through in life
Michael
You learn to accept the good and the bad and power through the obstacles to make you stronger.
Kathy
Life is a constant learning curve based on your experiences...
Kathy
and your reactions, good or bad to those experiences.
Kathy
listen to frequency
God
what are the kinds of Psychologists and which one can easy and interesting?
Jaswanth Reply
how to be an active listener?
Pritszel Reply
***en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_listening
Anindya
Pls go through
Anindya
make an eye contact and you can nod that you are listening
Matúš
also body language is important
Matúš
not a credible source
Maria
ok thanks..
Pritszel
hi! i am a person of 21 yeard of age. i want to start a business. but now i have to face a problem which. to be honest banking problem, i am not sure but within a month the problem may start. and if started i may get some mental stress. experts please help me on this to deal.
Private Reply
None can avoid stress bt can learn to cope up with it.
Anindya
Follow a routine life, healthy diet and physical exercise. These things may hlp u
Anindya
pls be specific about the problem so we can know how to help you out
Glory
to be honest, father had taken loan of 18million and now is unable to pay the interest. bank is about to execute legal procedure. i feel like it may hamper on me and my career. but i dont want to quit. i want to run towards my dream but due to these problems i am not staying focused towards it.
Private
You should go and consult with a councellor regarding the issue
Anindya
should i work under pressure of take a rest for certain period of time and be normal again and start my career?
Private
Hello, what is your father's relationship with this business?
Diferent
my father has no any relation with my startup business currently. but the legal procedures from the bank(my name on national news paper along with photo and details) will surely somehow affect me. how can i get rid of it brcause i dont wanna quit, sooner or late i want to be something..
Private
this is not something tough for you! The craftsman's prejudices always exist, there will be different attitudes about this matter! Those who disagree, will appreciate the moment with you! Those who disagree, make public judgments, you have to have more confidence to cope too much!
Diferent
Many people give their family attitudes, if a family is not well-educated and prejudices, they get caught up with other people, if they want us to communicate and by email, I can help!
Diferent
Mr. private why you feel if started I may get mental stress ..... this is the first reason definitely I will get mental stress.... already you sended to your brain about this problem .....so at that time your brain automatically create stressful environment you don't know what happening around you
Chennakesavarao
hi different! thats not possible! but thank you. but i may need help. i would be greatfull if you can help me! how can i contact you? on email?
Private
hi gattu! please read all my problems.
Private
you will become zero knowledge person ..... listen i thought you have a great thinking power so fill your brain with positive thoughts you have a great life ahead this your first failure... don't blame your mind as you a failure person...
Chennakesavarao
and you said bank legal notice , my name with photo in national news channel ......this is the mostly worst and time westing thinking... people didn't remember you.... everyone has a lot of problems so didn't think about you and people only remember successful persons
Chennakesavarao
hi gattu! i prefer failing than quiting, because it teaches something that no one is capable to teach. i am about lose everything, and you agree or not, it definitely makes you feel stressed. no matter who the person is. i motivate people to calm. but is a problem only 1 in 1000s face.
Private
yeah you will contact through mail
Chennakesavarao
can I know about your business
Chennakesavarao
i have a business to start. not started yet. the things i have mentioned about losing is my dads business, property, house and all.
Private

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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