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Job stress affects job satisfaction. Job stress, or job strain, is caused by specific stressors in an occupation. Stress can be an ambigious term as it is used in common language. Stress is the perception and response of an individual to events judged as ovewhelming or threatening to the individual’s well-being (Gyllensten&Palmer, 2005). The events themselves are the stressors. Stress is a result of an employee’s perception that the demands placed on them exceed their ability to meet them (Gyllensten&Palmer, 2005), such as having to fill multiple roles in a job or life in general, workplace role ambiguity, lack of career progress, lack of job security, lack of control over work outcomes, isolation, work overload, discrimination, harrassment, and bullying (Colligan&Higgins, 2005). The stressors are different for women than men and these differences are a significant area of research (Gyllensten&Palmer, 2005). Job stress leads to poor employee health, job performance, and family life (Colligan&Higgins, 2005).

As already mentioned, job insecurity contributes significantly to job stress. Two increasing threats to job security are downsizing events and corporate mergers. Businesses typically involve I-O psychologists in planning for, implementing, and managing these types of organizational change.

Downsizing is an increasingly common response to a business’s pronounced failure to achieve profit goals, and it involves laying off a significant percentage of the company’s employees. Industrial-organizational psychologists may be involved in all aspects of downsizing: how the news is delivered to employees (both those being let go and those staying), how laid-off employees are supported (e.g., separation packages), and how retained employees are supported. The latter is important for the organization because downsizing events affect the retained employee’s intent to quit, organizational commitment, and job insecurity (Ugboro, 2006).

In addition to downsizing as a way of responding to outside strains on a business, corporations often grow larger by combining with other businesses. This can be accomplished through a merger (i.e., the joining of two organizations of equal power and status) or an acquisition (i.e., one organization purchases the other). In an acquisition, the purchasing organization is usually the more powerful or dominant partner. In both cases, there is usually a duplication of services between the two companies, such as two accounting departments and two sales forces. Both departments must be merged, which commonly involves a reduction of staff ( [link] ). This leads to organizational processes and stresses similar to those that occur in downsizing events. Mergers require determining how the organizational culture will change, to which employees also must adjust (van Knippenberg, van Knippenberg, Monden,&de Lima, 2002). There can be additional stress on workers as they lose their connection to the old organization and try to make connections with the new combined group (Amiot, Terry, Jimmieson,&Callan, 2006). Research in this area focuses on understanding employee reactions and making practical recommendations for managing these organizational changes.

Questions & Answers

What if I'm just...I don't know..like without feelings?
Iza Reply
why do you say that
Olivia
my dad died 3week ago... I wasn't feel sad or something... I was first at my school...but I wasn't proud of myself or happy... I don't have feelings...
Iza
because she is looking for an outlet, she says she is without feelings which is disconnection to others, which is a feeling itself. seems like she is having a hard time connecting with others emotionally due to mistrust, that probably comes from dishonesty from others and a defensive mechanism.
Rey
sorry to hear abt that. okay tell me was u close to your dad?
mahliqa
I know someone in a similar situation. How can i make this person happy?It s my boyfriend
Stefana
Do you think you have gone through so much pain before that your brain is trying to numb you to emotions? Do you watch unhealthy videos such as gore? If you do your brain is so used to sadistic content that you cant feel emotions and I'd recommend that you would stay away from anything unhealthy for
CW
I was somehow close to my dad...like..yeah... I was closer to him than to my mom
Iza
Stay away from it for a month or so and see how you feel.
CW
you know the thing is u are not accepting the fact that ur dad is not there anymore. that does not mean that u dont have feeling its just u dont want to believe it. see ur childhood pictures with him some video's of yours with him. the u wll know that u are not feeling less. any question u can ask m
mahliqa
lmao...but I'm like that like when I was a child...when I was 5 I wasn't "happy"
Iza
y u wasnt happy
mahliqa
see i need to know everything abt your childhood. is there anything in your childhood that something bad happened? i am here to help u so u have to tell me everything so i can reach to the core of the problem
mahliqa
nothing bad.... it was fine
Iza
@mahliqa I can understand ur trying for Psychotherapy But kindly go and read , practice well. just a chat doesn't make clients to open up their problem also this is not proved anywhere yet. if you really concern about their welfare and wanna help them. ask them to meet a Psychologist near to her
Pradeep
Dear Iza Pingu kindly get an appointment to ur nearest Psychologist for a long term betterment. they will made u to deal and make u better in all possible ways. Good Luck!
Pradeep
get me at pradeepsamuel@yahoo.com for further clarification
Pradeep
yall dont understand, obviously she is seeking attention, she is not seeking an answer. i come from a lot of mistrust and pain but i know we have very strong minds so one can overcome anything. its all about control of your emotions, since you say you have none then you must create these moments.
Rey
if you don't have feelings then your attitude dulls and may lead to some kind of disorder and people around think you as careless person. To feel joy some situation practice showing all the feeling whether good/bad in a Normal way without harm just for 21-30 days & control all ur Negative Emotions.
Jaswanth
Mr.rey how come u say that she is attention seeking without diagnose her ? have u created any rapport with her ? did u investigate her ? never judge ur client. kindly go and study what is counseling and what is the role of Psychologist.
Pradeep
@Jaswanth nothing will make this to disorders. for a disorders there are lots of things behind the reason. in this case the patient is mild Depressed. lose of hope, feels nothing, feeling hope less all these are symptoms of depression.
Pradeep
@pradeep u plz mind ur own bussiness. i am a psychologist. i know what to do and what not to do. and honestly saying u need a psychologist go get an appointment.
mahliqa
guys kindly don't provide any thing for clients just having an Psychology degree. practice before u deal with clients. your misguidence will make the clients worst. Also understand Psychologist never give solution they help the clients to find out the solution by themselves.
Pradeep
not having feelings after a traumatic event is a way for the mind to cope with what has happened. if this is the case use it to your advantage and go over the trauma with a fine tooth comb. how does it effect you, what can you learn from it, what areas in your life feel removed due to this event.
Selphira
the kore you go over it the more it because a common experience the more sensory adaptation will occur when you have emotions associated with it. and it will affect you less. seek out friends and talk about it. if you are comfortable with that. 😊
Selphira
If psyche means soul and ology means study of. how does psychology mean the scientific study of the mind?
Dolores Reply
The term *PSYCHOLOGY* was coined when mind and soul were not considered two different things. That may be because the concept was not clear. I guess that is the reason of psychology being the scientific study of mind, even though psyche means soul.
Bellatrix
yes. i think so u need to show love for the teamm.thay respect
Amina Reply
can losing someone in a traumatic way cause someone to develop things like anxiety and panic attacks?
Chloe Reply
it can but not always. depends upon the coping capabilities of the person.
Bonito
say this person has never dealt with such grief before and they don't know how to cope
Chloe
PTSD
Maria
maybe but things related to this event don't trigger them
Chloe
a neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger that carries signals between neurons/nerve cells. These chemical messengers influence both physical and psychological functionings. Some important neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Seratonin, GABA and Dopamine
Aisha Reply
aha
Ihrar
what is a neurotransmitter
Ash Reply
they're simply chemical messengers which go from one neuron to another
Chloe
it is a chemical which uses in the communication of neurons may be excitatory or inhibitory
natnael
Neuro transmitter,it is a biological or chemical substance that carries information from the nervous systems expertialy from the Brian to all parts of the body of both humans and animals.
Tanam
what are the limitations of case study in psychology?
Rajat Reply
Ethics
Maria
sample selection biasness, cannot generalized to wider population, difficult to establish cause effect relationship, observational biasness, limited data collection etc
prachi
what is the educational psychology
Arabinda Reply
Educational psychology is the application of psychological theories and principles in school or classroom.
Tanam
it is a branch of modern psychology concerned with the learning process and psychological problems of teachers and students
Chika
how does limbic system works?
Anu Reply
I am doing a counselling course in person centred but I like to help and advise what should I do extra ,?
terry Reply
During the time you are being taught textbook psychology you should round your education with real world experience by volunteering at institutions you have an interest in making a possible career of after you graduate.
Carey
applied psychology is a branch of psychology
Kaneez
how does psychology is different from applied psychology
Laxmi Reply
applied psychology is a kind of psychology which tried to show the application of psychology in your practical life though there is no such differences between the content but it's more practical than basic psychology which includes lots of distribution within the discipline & theoretical in nature
deepashree
could anyone explain what course are available for applied psychology I'm highly interested and use psychology to help me understand and process like through my experiences and would love to develop a deeper understand and knowledge bases so I'm able to extract the wisdom?
Michael
applied psychology is in its a course . there are 2 types of courses 1. B.A. /M.A.psychology 2 . B.A./ M.A. applied psychology
deepashree
if you want to be an clinical psycologist you can also opt for B.A. or M.A in clinical psycology
Raksha
psychology is the study of behavior and mental functioning of both human and animals.On the other hand applied psychology is the use of psychological theories and principles to solve psychological problems.
Tanam
reasons why we conduct personality assessment
Olaleye Reply
we conduct it for knowing one person's attitude and identifying the faults from it easily
Jaswanth
for knowing our strengths and weaknesses
Kris
personality assessment can provide us with a way to categorize different charateristics or traits that we may not be aware of.Also, this categorization will help us learn how others might react to something in their environment.
Tanam
These assignments can be used for self reflection and understanding for job placement and for learning how to better interact with others in a team or work group.
Tanam
well explained Tanam Ibrahim
Kris
thank you all
Tanam
what is applied psychology then ?
Varshaa Reply
applied psychology is psychology for a narrow audience basic psychology is broad, in comparrison to applied psychology. Basic psychology wants to discover people's motive to every day environmental wellness. Applied psychology wants to discover what motivates you to buy an eco friendly product.
Briana
Applied psychology refers to applying the concepts and theories to understand why people do what they do and perhaps change the behaviour in cases where it is abnormal.
Maria
does industrial psychology come under this ? wt abt social media and product designing psychology ....does it come under this applied psychology
Varshaa
Industrial psychology basically deals with issues in the workplace and focuses more on increasing productivity and the well-being of the employees.
Maria
Social media and product designing is not a sub field in psychology. It is a topic tho.
Maria
wt abt career in those Feilds..of social media and product design
Varshaa
Social psychologists and product designers usually takes a behavioural approach. If it's directly in the field of psychology I'd suggest social aspect. Psychology is within every field. What are you currently studying?
Maria
I am studying BA Hons applied psychology
Varshaa
Product designing falls under consumer psychology which is a branch of Social psychology through which conscious and unconscious influence prompts customers to buy or not buy the products.
Maria
oh kay cool..soo wt abt u ?...Ur are studying?
Varshaa
I'm studying Psychology. In the future I'll specialize in Clinical Psychology.
Maria
oh great !...
Varshaa
Do you guys have to obtain a phD before the license is granted?
Maria
hi guys
TECHNICAL
not exactly ...we need to have minimum MA I guess....
Varshaa
am not quite sure abt that ......
Varshaa
Okay.
Maria
any leads about Neuro Psychology
Pradeep Reply
What is Neuro psychology?
Michael
it aim to study the relationship between nervous system and cognitive behaviour. it culminate to identify pathway of neuron functioning followed in course of psychological phenomena. it is widely used to identify biological differences in an individual psychology.
prachi
its true
kitwala
how to get license of professional psychologists in India
Basavaraj
you have to do MPhil to practise as a psychologist in India
Himshikha
Can you name some good colleges in India, where I can do MPhil in Clinical Psychology.
Khursheede
The best is NIMHANS Bangalore
Himshikha
Nimhans is great my junior have doing der P.G
Pradeep
helo
parsa
what is mean by cognitive science
Umesh
Cognitive science is the study of the mind and what is does, including many scientific disciplines that touch on the subject. In this lesson, we will briefly explore the definition of cognitive science, and review its history.
Alicia
you probably got on here the same way I did you download the app
Richard
how to learn this cognitive science and where are the colleges?
Umesh
not exactly what I expected
Richard
the app is pretty decent though
Richard
I'm going to lee community college and this app is actually the text book they have us reading... you can find it for free in kindle but the app helps because it's interactive and has built in vocab cards
Taylor
umesh, what are you talking about? do you know english well?
Rey
This is the app they have students reading 🤔 The Caribbean really do have it harder and do much more in a year.
Maria
not the app itself, this app is made from the actual text book.... It's basically exactly the same
Taylor
I've seen the content.
Maria
discrimination learning
gaurav Reply
phenomenon in psychology which enable person to behave differently in different stimuli. it is mostly used to study pattern recognation, concept formation, etc. as opposite to generalized learning.
prachi
Example?
dummy
wow
Rabbitt
Hi
Srinivas
hello
Princeed
Hi
Srinivas
What can I ask in particular
DIPAL
I love psychology subject.
Rahul
i am msc psychology student
maira
plz pray for me...my exams are after Eid
maira
all the best maira
Rahul
best of luck and God bless you
MISBAH
all the best dear
Saran
same condition
MISBAH
Allah bless u maira khalid
Rao
my exam also occuring on 28june
MISBAH
my 21 june
maira
thnx
maira
from where you doing msc
MISBAH
punjab university in lahore
maira
ok
MISBAH
I am from amu aligarh
MISBAH
and you
maira
but I am doing M.A. in psychology
MISBAH
u r part 2 student
maira
can u guide me in subject of health psychology
maira
bcoz its too much difficult
maira
did you study clinical psychology
MISBAH
previous course
MISBAH
if not, you must study clinical psychology
MISBAH
Hi
dilawar
yes i did clinical psychology
maira
So why are you worry about health psychology. Just read read and read
dilawar
then you should not be worry and according to me you must make career in clinical psychology because it's scope is very waste in comparison to other
MISBAH
i know
maira
Is any one preparing for entrance exam for MA in DU?
Arjun
I have not enough information about health psychology because I have not health psychology in B.A. I am preparing for M.A.
MISBAH
but I think I can guide you better
MISBAH
I am
Aarti
can you tell me about the fees for d.u. semester wise
MISBAH
For general or applied psychology?
Arjun
applied
MISBAH
what
maira
best of luck... both ov u..
Adicted
yes
maira
where are you from ?
Adicted
The fees are 9k per year
Arjun
So how are u preparing for it?
Arjun
I am not preparing but I want to know
MISBAH
I am only interested in amu aligarh
MISBAH
So have u applied it?
Arjun
because my financial condition is not good so I am only affordable for amu
MISBAH
Oho ok
Arjun
the world cheapest education in amu aligarh , anybody can study in amu
MISBAH
Great
Arjun
Student oriented loans and the scholarship programs can help u with this...
Lakshika
yes
MISBAH
I know
MISBAH
Anyone preparing for fergusson college MA (Pune)?
Arjun
Anyone here from Jamia?
Himshikha
I'm from the Caribbean.
Maria
ok
maira
How many of you have psychology as a major
DIPAL
🖐️
Maria
masters
Richard
I mean máster in psychology
DIPAL
Hello
Maria
I did batcholrs in Psychology in U.G now in P.G doing masters in Psychology and also doing Msw(Medical&Psychiatry)
Pradeep
I think no need of specialization on health psychology in under Graduation you would have study as paper. one of my senior working as health psychologist in HH hospital. good luck!
Pradeep
U.G?
Maria
hy guys
deepashree
U.G Undergraduate @maria mam
Pradeep
I've got into MA Applied Psychology in Jamia Millia Islamia
Himshikha
I have m. Sc in general psychology
dilawar
Alot of spelling mistakes ?
Lawrence
World Cup about to start....relax & enjoy Pyschology and football.
Lawrence
Russia to win as host and first match to kick off in 2018..
Lawrence
I am very interested in studying human behaviour..now doing NLP studies and a certified hypnotist...
Lawrence
I am from Singapore...
Lawrence
I am Jaswanth from India
Jaswanth
I notice that Indians are very interested in Literature,Law and humanities studies..etc
Lawrence
I am dilawar. I am from Pakistan. I am psychologist
dilawar
There are so many divisions in psychology! and both science & arts students can study psychology. Can any one of you please clarify me this?
Prasuta
I joined ignou for clinical psychology
Raghu
in india there is M.A and M.sc in psychology. one part says it come under arts but other part says it's sciende. in anyhow anything which is proved come under in science and professionals from world wide believes Psychology is an science and this are proven except come theories include
Pradeep
I am from Ghana in Africa
Tanam
thanks
Prasuta
and what is the difference between 'psychologists' and 'psychiatrist'?
Prasuta
also people will call them self as Psychogist just with batcholrs & masters but only few are deserve to a quality Psychologist. a quality Psychologist is one who invent new theories and discover new things from people. just a degree doesn't make them Psychologist.
Pradeep
I have not gotten the time to stay with you guys to learn the more
Tanam
well said
Prasuta
I am also a psychology student.i therefore need your help both advise and in studies
Tanam
one of the best example I can provide is Eg: SCIENTIST is the person who is well expert and talent in his field. we doesn't have any degree or study to be a scientist. they are the people who study same batcholrs and masters and M.phil and Ph.D graduates
Pradeep
I am also a psychology student.i therefore need your help both advise and in studies
Tanam
Psychologist- the person who study behavior of human. therapy and counseling will be provided by them. people who studies B.Sc B.A , M.sc , M.Phil, P.hd psychatrist- they are actually doctors who studies MBBS and in their specialization they do MD in psychiatry. they can only prescrip medicine
Pradeep
good
maira
okay.... thank you very much for the clarification..😊
Prasuta
I also need help from people who have already completed their master's in psychology
Raghu
are you a psychiatrist/psychologist?
Prasuta
i am student of msc part 2.
maira

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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