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Developmental psychology

Developmental psychology is the scientific study of development across a lifespan. Developmental psychologists are interested in processes related to physical maturation. However, their focus is not limited to the physical changes associated with aging, as they also focus on changes in cognitive skills, moral reasoning, social behavior, and other psychological attributes.

Early developmental psychologists focused primarily on changes that occurred through reaching adulthood, providing enormous insight into the differences in physical, cognitive, and social capacities that exist between very young children and adults. For instance, research by Jean Piaget ( [link] ) demonstrated that very young children do not demonstrate object permanence. Object permanence refers to the understanding that physical things continue to exist, even if they are hidden from us. If you were to show an adult a toy, and then hide it behind a curtain, the adult knows that the toy still exists. However, very young infants act as if a hidden object no longer exists. The age at which object permanence is achieved is somewhat controversial (Munakata, McClelland, Johnson, and Siegler, 1997).

A photograph shows Jean Piaget.
Jean Piaget is famous for his theories regarding changes in cognitive ability that occur as we move from infancy to adulthood.

While Piaget was focused on cognitive changes during infancy and childhood as we move to adulthood, there is an increasing interest in extending research into the changes that occur much later in life. This may be reflective of changing population demographics of developed nations as a whole. As more and more people live longer lives, the number of people of advanced age will continue to increase. Indeed, it is estimated that there were just over 40 million people aged 65 or older living in the United States in 2010. However, by 2020, this number is expected to increase to about 55 million. By the year 2050, it is estimated that nearly 90 million people in this country will be 65 or older (Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.).

Personality psychology

Personality psychology focuses on patterns of thoughts and behaviors that make each individual unique. Several individuals (e.g., Freud and Maslow) that we have already discussed in our historical overview of psychology, and the American psychologist Gordon Allport, contributed to early theories of personality. These early theorists attempted to explain how an individual’s personality develops from his or her given perspective. For example, Freud proposed that personality arose as conflicts between the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind were carried out over the lifespan. Specifically, Freud theorized that an individual went through various psychosexual stages of development. According to Freud, adult personality would result from the resolution of various conflicts that centered on the migration of erogenous (or sexual pleasure-producing) zones from the oral (mouth) to the anus to the phallus to the genitals. Like many of Freud’s theories, this particular idea was controversial and did not lend itself to experimental tests (Person, 1980).

Questions & Answers

Name all the methods in psychology
hollywood Reply
Psychotherapy
Michelle
observation
Dwaipayan
behavioral therapy
Darbaz
Experimental method, Observation method, clinal methods,Interview method
aijaz
experiment
Dwaipayan
There are many methods depending on the school: cognitive, behaviour, gestalt, existentialist..
Horia
Some times it Needs Biological Corrections of the Brain Change..Then Person can get benefits from the Methods...
Darbaz
psychological throphy
Imran
Dissociative fugue has been linked tosevere stress, which might be the result of traumatic events -- such as war, abuse, accidents, disasters, or extreme violence -- that the person hasexperienced or witnessed.. im just googleing it so im not sure i can explain much better... ill do more research....why is it that your asking? May i ask?
Skylar Reply
did some messages disappear?
Eleni
this just pops up in my notifications and i find it very interesting but cant find any way to navigate back to it
Eleni
ya same keeps happening to me a chat messege popped up earlier somebody asking what a fugue state was and i had googled it and wrote back but once i exited the app i can find a way back to the chat...
Skylar
So anyway... Dissociative fugue, formerly fugue state or psychogenic fugue, is a dissociative disorder and a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by reversible amnesia for personal identity, including the memories, personality, and other identifying characteristics of individuality.
Skylar
to get back without using the notification you have to remember what section the comments were on. I remembered it was about dissociative fugue so I went into psychological disorders and then into dissociative disorders and scrolled to the bottom. hope that helps
Matt
hoping someone messeges back from the other chat so it will pop up in my notifications again
Skylar
thank you!
Skylar
it came up on a quiz and i hadnt heard it before. thankyou for your response. i appreciate it.
jody
your welcome
Skylar
that happened to me to.. weird
jody
Yeah Skylar.. I never hered of this I am looking into.. as I had and slightly do now.. my bloods have come up so back to the doctors for underactive my t4 are off scale high.. educating your self helps u understand your body and state of mind memorys .thanks
Rachel
True. Good luck! No problem im glad i could help someone.
Skylar
Yeah.. thanks you again.. u singe my thought process for the better
Rachel
If humans have evolved biologically [like their skulls,jaws etc],so how can we apply animal psychology to humans? They must have evolved their minds...even one exception is enough to contradict....
abid Reply
yes
Petros
do you have suggestions for learning Darwin's theory of evolution....beginner+interactive
abid
what's the fugue state
jody Reply
is this a private messege or a chat room? i didnt even know you could messege on this app...
Skylar
I'm confused
Hailey
same
Manav
me too
davie
Same here. Not satisfactory user interface here.
Swati
hi
Melandi
Dissociative fugue, formerly fugue state or psychogenic fugue, is a dissociative disorder and a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by reversible amnesia for personal identity, including the memories, personality, and other identifying characteristics of individuality. Thestate can last days,
Skylar
months or longer
Skylar
skyler can you please elaborate it ?
ecstasy
i would say careful whats said. not private
jody
skylar i got u.
Eleni
thanks finally figured out how the chat thing works... anyway im really just googling this but i will do more research about i had heard the word before but never looked it up so this is very interesting...
Skylar
well. Dissociation is a mental process that causes a lack of connection in a person's thoughts, memory and sense of identity. ... A severe and more chronic form of dissociation is seen in the disorder Dissociative Identity Disorder, once called Multiple Personality Disorder, and other Dissociative 
Skylar
disorders
Skylar
Dissociation may affect a person subjectively in the form of “made” thoughts, feelings, and actions. These are thoughts or emotions seemingly coming out of nowhere, or finding oneself carrying out an action as if it were controlled by a force other than oneself
Skylar
what diagnosis or treatment would that need? and can't it be a sideeffect of depression, MDD etc?
Eleni
if anyone needs a first hand account I can provide one. I suffer with severe combat PTSD and struggle intensely with dissociation. Episodes can last a few minutes, days or weeks as recorded by my family ( care givers)
Matt
Symptoms and signs of dissociative disorders include: Significant memory loss of specific times, people and events Out-of-body experiences, such as feeling as though you are watching a movie of yourself
Skylar
Mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and thoughts of suicide A sense of detachment from your emotions, or emotional numbness A lack of a sense of self-identity
Skylar
Dissociative disorders are managed through various therapies including: Psychotherapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)
Skylar
Medications such as antidepressants can treat symptoms of related conditions
Skylar
The diagnosis of either Dissociative Amnesia. Depersonalization disorder. Dissociative identity disorder. 
Skylar
does the altered state link directly to DID? is it a character or auto-pilot?
Eleni
im not sure how to word that to research it can u explain that question a bit more or differently?
Skylar
what is memory
Khushbu Reply
what is the meaning of memory
Khushbu
what is the meaning of memory?
Khushbu
what is the meaning of memory?
Khushbu
cognitive process whereby we remember past experiences
Annie
to aid in survival
Eleni
Storing information about people, places, and experiences. Both good and bad, in order to recall and make decisions.
andrew
Memory is the process by which we encode ,store, and retrieve information from the environment through different sense organs.
aijaz
the encryption-decryption mechanism of our psychophysical experiences
juan
can anyone suggest me good coaching in Indore MP India for m.a entrance of du psychology
SAMKIT Reply
How can one diagnose a patient with a mental disorder such as schizophrenia?
Kutwal Reply
Making the Diagnosis. To get an official diagnosi of schizophrenia, your loved one has to show at least two of the following symptom most of the time for a month, and some mental disturbance over six months: Delusions (false beliefs that the person won't give up, even when they get proof that they'r
Khajiit
they're not ture)
Khajiit
Can sombody write me here about Pinoccio in psychodynamic perspective?
Amina Reply
what is the nature and nurture perspective of personality?
Khan Reply
are there significant differences between methamphetamine and it's long term effects on male cognitive behavioral and function versus female?
Shiloh Reply
effects will be the same( male & female)
Smith
tell me more
baby
no. it's much worse on females. almost s complete polar switch
cody
show me ans fast plzzz
Khushbu
please is there any difference between abnormal behaviour and normal behaviour?
Ayodele Reply
hm
sheere
yes abnormal behavior is "not normal ", actions in society's eyes. an example of abnormal behavior (I remember from a textbook) ; a man who runs around frantically in a grocery store licking strangers'(women's) shoes because when he was a baby his mom would tickle his feet/give them special attentio
Peter
yes there is a difference between abnormal and normal behaviour... This is simply because abnormal behaviour is deviating from the normal behaviour of the society while normal behaviour is obeying the moral standards in the society.
Emmanuel
how about disorders? like, always having a tantrums and irrational most of the time?
Jheannalyn
a behavior becomes pathological when 1. there is a before and after : you can see a real change of behavior/cognition or 2. behavior is pathological when it makes yourself or others suffer
Perle
what is difference between disease and disorder
Shahab
disease demand medicin but disorder demands care plus medicin
Zeeshan
I think the concept of normal and abnormal behavior in general is not much of psychological concept but more of sociological concept. A behavior or act in itself is not normal or abnormal. How society perceives that specific behavior, that's what decides what's normal.
Juveriya
For instance, gay marriage is considered normal where homosexuality is legalized. Where it isn't legalized, its abnormal.
Juveriya
So there cannot be an absolute answer for your question
Juveriya
well abnormality is pretty much considered in popular society which is something of a correlation of psycholigical perspective reflected through activity... something abstract... or non trending or precedented. or maybe something disturbing or atypical for people in their respective birth cohorts.
Geoffrey
please what are the schools of thought in psychology
Jennifer
if I told a girl that I will marry her how will she takes it when am to rate it in percentages
dauda
structuralism,functionalism,gestaltalism etc
aijaz
what about Diathesis stress model ?
aijaz
What is the difference between motivation and goal?
vishal Reply
goal is what you want to accomplish. motivation is what drives you to achieve it
Tay
motivation is ambitious and a goal is a ambition
Alivia
But Motivation is just stay there for only short time
Manish
goal is our destination and motivation is a vehicle to reach goal
pradeep
motivation is the One person improved in self development another person advices......... goal is achievement at one of the life.....
thangaraj
motivation is for our personality development thing but goal is our whole personality.
Zeeshan
but its should be more remember without motivation no life no goal .
Zeeshan
it's like this
Tay
if my goal is to get my degree. then me wanting a better job is my motivation. ultimately family
Tay
Motivation is the vehicle we use to reach our goal.
Zachary
Please wat r the schools of psychology
Jennifer
i want the outline of it,its methodology
Jennifer
hi guys can someone help me how can I over or stress ?
Folet
Jennifer I need to take my own advice however stress relief is something that is done through catharsis which in my estimation is defined as a physical or mental activity used as therapy... that can include, yoga, meditation, sex, physical activity like a sport or martial art practice or sometimes .
Geoffrey
the schools of psych I have no clue about
Geoffrey
If you want to be something ,that we can say you have goal.But you will never be that without enough effort,if you getting accurate rewards from your surrounding as accepting you than before when you are trying to be something.that we can say motivation.it may be in the form of acceptance and suport
Hot
motiVation is the part of goal . but it has a backbone value for goal .with out motivation wo can not Think about our aim of life, our goals .
Zeeshan
how do you get motivation? I'm such a lax person
Alexsus
can anyone help me we have a school in a third world country the kids are unable to learn, how can we help them motivate?
Cesaire
make it a game , if it's a 3rd world country then personal hygiene supplies would be a good prize to win
Maria
Maria can you explain that a little more
Cesaire
make them a set goal of so many pages to read or assigments to accomplish and go buy soap, toothpaste and toothbrush or even Candy and put it in front of the class so everyone can see the prizes and it will motivate them to finish first to get an award
Maria
ok
Cesaire
ok Maria
Cesaire
Motivation - reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way. Goal - The object of a person's ambition or effort; an aim or desired result.
andrew
what is mutation?
Amaya Reply
What is mindfulness
rahul
mindfulness means to be aware of the present
Agnieszka
meaning that you are totally focussing on the present...and living in the moment
Agnieszka
also present variables
Carl
hello guys
Folet
can someone help with few answers ?
Folet
hi what is all about ?
Folet Reply
The theory of evolution and its natural selection is a given trait by respond it is also classical conditioning it is a given trait that makes humans more unique than any other species of animals plants or an the theory o the Big Bang is a spontaneous person and has expanded ev we do not know that m
Ryan Reply
hi
Cesaire
hi
yugandhar

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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