# 4.1 Exponential functions  (Page 9/16)

 Page 9 / 16

Access these online resources for additional instruction and practice with exponential functions.

## Key equations

 definition of the exponential function definition of exponential growth compound interest formula continuous growth formula $t$ is the number of unit time periods of growth $a$ is the starting amount (in the continuous compounding formula a is replaced with P, the principal) $e$ is the mathematical constant,

## Key concepts

• An exponential function is defined as a function with a positive constant other than $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ raised to a variable exponent. See [link] .
• A function is evaluated by solving at a specific value. See [link] and [link] .
• An exponential model can be found when the growth rate and initial value are known. See [link] .
• An exponential model can be found when the two data points from the model are known. See [link] .
• An exponential model can be found using two data points from the graph of the model. See [link] .
• An exponential model can be found using two data points from the graph and a calculator. See [link] .
• The value of an account at any time $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ can be calculated using the compound interest formula when the principal, annual interest rate, and compounding periods are known. See [link] .
• The initial investment of an account can be found using the compound interest formula when the value of the account, annual interest rate, compounding periods, and life span of the account are known. See [link] .
• The number $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is a mathematical constant often used as the base of real world exponential growth and decay models. Its decimal approximation is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e\approx 2.718282.$
• Scientific and graphing calculators have the key $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[{e}^{x}\right]\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ or $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[\mathrm{exp}\left(x\right)\right]\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ for calculating powers of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ See [link] .
• Continuous growth or decay models are exponential models that use $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ as the base. Continuous growth and decay models can be found when the initial value and growth or decay rate are known. See [link] and [link] .

## Verbal

Explain why the values of an increasing exponential function will eventually overtake the values of an increasing linear function.

Linear functions have a constant rate of change. Exponential functions increase based on a percent of the original.

Given a formula for an exponential function, is it possible to determine whether the function grows or decays exponentially just by looking at the formula? Explain.

The Oxford Dictionary defines the word nominal as a value that is “stated or expressed but not necessarily corresponding exactly to the real value.” Oxford Dictionary. http://oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/nomina. Develop a reasonable argument for why the term nominal rate is used to describe the annual percentage rate of an investment account that compounds interest.

When interest is compounded, the percentage of interest earned to principal ends up being greater than the annual percentage rate for the investment account. Thus, the annual percentage rate does not necessarily correspond to the real interest earned, which is the very definition of nominal .

The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25.
how do you find the period of a sine graph
Period =2π if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period
Am
if not then how would I find it from a graph
Imani
by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates.
Am
you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts
Am
I will try that thank u
Imani
Case of Equilateral Hyperbola
ok
Zander
ok
Shella
f(x)=4x+2, find f(3)
Benetta
f(3)=4(3)+2 f(3)=14
lamoussa
14
Vedant
pre calc teacher: "Plug in Plug in...smell's good" f(x)=14
Devante
8x=40
Chris
Explain why log a x is not defined for a < 0
the sum of any two linear polynomial is what
Momo
how can are find the domain and range of a relations
the range is twice of the natural number which is the domain
Morolake
A cell phone company offers two plans for minutes. Plan A: $15 per month and$2 for every 300 texts. Plan B: $25 per month and$0.50 for every 100 texts. How many texts would you need to send per month for plan B to save you money?
6000
Robert
more than 6000
Robert
can I see the picture
How would you find if a radical function is one to one?
how to understand calculus?
with doing calculus
SLIMANE
Thanks po.
Jenica
Hey I am new to precalculus, and wanted clarification please on what sine is as I am floored by the terms in this app? I don't mean to sound stupid but I have only completed up to college algebra.
I don't know if you are looking for a deeper answer or not, but the sine of an angle in a right triangle is the length of the opposite side to the angle in question divided by the length of the hypotenuse of said triangle.
Marco
can you give me sir tips to quickly understand precalculus. Im new too in that topic. Thanks
Jenica
if you remember sine, cosine, and tangent from geometry, all the relationships are the same but they use x y and r instead (x is adjacent, y is opposite, and r is hypotenuse).
Natalie
it is better to use unit circle than triangle .triangle is only used for acute angles but you can begin with. Download any application named"unit circle" you find in it all you need. unit circle is a circle centred at origine (0;0) with radius r= 1.
SLIMANE
What is domain
johnphilip
the standard equation of the ellipse that has vertices (0,-4)&(0,4) and foci (0, -15)&(0,15) it's standard equation is x^2 + y^2/16 =1 tell my why is it only x^2? why is there no a^2?
what is foci?
This term is plural for a focus, it is used for conic sections. For more detail or other math questions. I recommend researching on "Khan academy" or watching "The Organic Chemistry Tutor" YouTube channel.
Chris
how to determine the vertex,focus,directrix and axis of symmetry of the parabola by equations