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Now consider a cubic function f ( x ) = a x 3 + b x 2 + c x + d . If a > 0 , then f ( x ) as x and f ( x ) −∞ as x −∞ . If a < 0 , then f ( x ) −∞ as x and f ( x ) as x −∞ . As we can see from both of these graphs, the leading term of the polynomial determines the end behavior. (See [link] (b).)

An image of two graphs. The first graph is labeled “a” and has an x axis that runs from -4 to 5 and a y axis that runs from -4 to 6. The graph contains two functions. The first function is “f(x) = -(x squared) - 4x -4”, which is a parabola. The function increasing until it hits the maximum at the point (-2, 0) and then begins decreasing. The x intercept is at (-2, 0) and the y intercept is at (0, -4). The second function is “f(x) = 2(x squared) -12x + 16”, which is a parabola. The function decreases until it hits the minimum point at (3, -2) and then begins increasing. The x intercepts are at (2, 0) and (4, 0) and the y intercept is not shown. The second graph is labeled “b” and has an x axis that runs from -4 to 3 and a y axis that runs from -4 to 6. The graph contains two functions. The first function is “f(x) = -(x cubed) - 3(x squared) + x + 3”. The graph decreases until the approximate point at (-2.2, -3.1), then increases until the approximate point at (0.2, 3.1), then begins decreasing again. The x intercepts are at (-3, 0), (-1, 0), and (1, 0). The y intercept is at (0, 3). The second function is “f(x) = (x cubed) -3(x squared) + 3x - 1”. It is a curved function that increases until the point (1, 0), where it levels out. After this point, the function begins increasing again. It has an x intercept at (1, 0) and a y intercept at (0, -1).
(a) For a quadratic function, if the leading coefficient a > 0 , the parabola opens upward. If a < 0 , the parabola opens downward. (b) For a cubic function f , if the leading coefficient a > 0 , the values f ( x ) as x and the values f ( x ) −∞ as x −∞ . If the leading coefficient a < 0 , the opposite is true.

Zeros of polynomial functions

Another characteristic of the graph of a polynomial function is where it intersects the x -axis. To determine where a function f intersects the x -axis, we need to solve the equation f ( x ) = 0 for .n the case of the linear function f ( x ) = m x + b , the x -intercept is given by solving the equation m x + b = 0 . In this case, we see that the x -intercept is given by ( b / m , 0 ) . In the case of a quadratic function, finding the x -intercept(s) requires finding the zeros of a quadratic equation: a x 2 + b x + c = 0 . In some cases, it is easy to factor the polynomial a x 2 + b x + c to find the zeros. If not, we make use of the quadratic formula.

Rule: the quadratic formula

Consider the quadratic equation

a x 2 + b x + c = 0 ,

where a 0 . The solutions of this equation are given by the quadratic formula

x = b ± b 2 4 a c 2 a .

If the discriminant b 2 4 a c > 0 , this formula tells us there are two real numbers that satisfy the quadratic equation. If b 2 4 a c = 0 , this formula tells us there is only one solution, and it is a real number. If b 2 4 a c < 0 , no real numbers satisfy the quadratic equation.

In the case of higher-degree polynomials, it may be more complicated to determine where the graph intersects the x -axis. In some instances, it is possible to find the x -intercepts by factoring the polynomial to find its zeros. In other cases, it is impossible to calculate the exact values of the x -intercepts. However, as we see later in the text, in cases such as this, we can use analytical tools to approximate (to a very high degree) where the x -intercepts are located. Here we focus on the graphs of polynomials for which we can calculate their zeros explicitly.

Graphing polynomial functions

For the following functions a. and b., i. describe the behavior of f ( x ) as x ± , ii. find all zeros of f , and iii. sketch a graph of f .

  1. f ( x ) = −2 x 2 + 4 x 1
  2. f ( x ) = x 3 3 x 2 4 x
  1. The function f ( x ) = −2 x 2 + 4 x 1 is a quadratic function.
    1. Because a = −2 < 0 , as x ± , f ( x ) −∞.
    2. To find the zeros of f , use the quadratic formula. The zeros are
      x = −4 ± 4 2 4 ( −2 ) ( −1 ) 2 ( −2 ) = −4 ± 8 −4 = −4 ± 2 2 −4 = 2 ± 2 2 .
    3. To sketch the graph of f , use the information from your previous answers and combine it with the fact that the graph is a parabola opening downward.
      An image of a graph. The x axis runs from -2 to 5 and the y axis runs from -8 to 2. The graph is of the function “f(x) = -2(x squared) + 4x - 1”, which is a parabola. The function increases until the maximum point at (1, 1) and then decreases. Both x intercept points are plotted on the function, at approximately (0.2929, 0) and (1.7071, 0). The y intercept is at the point (0, -1).
  2. The function f ( x ) = x 3 3 x 2 4 x is a cubic function.
    1. Because a = 1 > 0 , as x , f ( x ) . As x −∞ , f ( x ) −∞ .
    2. To find the zeros of f , we need to factor the polynomial. First, when we factor x out of all the terms, we find
      f ( x ) = x ( x 2 3 x 4 ) .

      Then, when we factor the quadratic function x 2 3 x 4 , we find
      f ( x ) = x ( x 4 ) ( x + 1 ) .

      Therefore, the zeros of f are x = 0 , 4 , −1 .
    3. Combining the results from parts i. and ii., draw a rough sketch of f .
      An image of a graph. The x axis runs from -2 to 5 and the y axis runs from -14 to 7. The graph is of the curved function “f(x) = (x cubed) - 3(x squared) - 4x”. The function increases until the approximate point at (-0.5, 1.1), then decreases until the approximate point (2.5, -13.1), then begins increasing again. The x intercept points are plotted on the function, at (-1, 0), (0, 0), and (4, 0). The y intercept is at the origin.
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Questions & Answers

proper definition of derivative
Syed Reply
the maximum rate of change of one variable with respect to another variable
Amdad
terms of an AP is 1/v and the vth term is 1/u show that the sum of uv terms is 1/2(uv+1)
Inembo Reply
what is calculus?
BISWAJIT Reply
calculus is math that studies the change in math, such as the rate and distance,
Tamarcus
what is limit of a function?
Geoffrey Reply
what is x and how x=9.1 take?
Pravin Reply
what is f(x)
Inembo Reply
the function at x
Marc
also known as the y value so I could say y=2x or f(x)= 2x same thing just using functional notation your next question is what is dependent and independent variables. I am Dyslexic but know math and which is which confuses me. but one can vary the x value while y depends on which x you use. also
Marc
up domain and range
Marc
enjoy your work and good luck
Marc
I actually wanted to ask another questions on sets if u dont mind please?
Inembo
I have so many questions on set and I really love dis app I never believed u would reply
Inembo
Hmm go ahead and ask you got me curious too much conversation here
Adri
am sorry for disturbing I really want to know math that's why *I want to know the meaning of those symbols in sets* e.g n,U,A', etc pls I want to know it and how to solve its problems
Inembo
and how can i solve a question like dis *in a group of 40 students, 32 offer maths and 24 offer physics and 4 offer neither maths nor physics , how many offer both maths and physics*
Inembo
next questions what do dy mean by (A' n B^c)^c'
Inembo
The sets help you to define the function. The function is like a magic box where you put inside stuff(numbers or sets) and you get out the stuff but in different shapes (forms).
Adri
I dont understand what you wanna say by (A' n B^c)^c'
Adri
(A' n B (rise to the power of c)) all rise to the power of c
Inembo
Aaaahh
Adri
Ok so the set is formed by vectors and not numbers
Adri
A vector of length n
Adri
But you can make a set out of matrixes as well
Adri
I I don't even understand sets I wat to know d meaning of all d symbolsnon sets
Inembo
Wait what's your math level?
Adri
High-school?
Adri
yes
Inembo
am having big problem understanding sets more than other math topics
Inembo
So f:R->R means that the function takes real numbers and provides real numer. For ex. If f(x) =2x this means if you give to your function a real number like 2,it gives you also a real number 2times2=4
Adri
pls answer this question *in a group of 40 students, 32 offer maths and 24 offer physics and 4 offer neither maths nor physics , how many offer both maths and physics*
Inembo
If you have f:R^n->R^n you give to your function a vector of length n like (a1,a2,...an) where all a1,.. an are reals and gives you also a vector of length n... I don't know if i answering your question. Otherwise on YouTube you havr many videos where they explain it in a simple way
Adri
I would say 24
Adri
Offer both
Adri
Sorry 20
Adri
Actually you have 40 - 4 =36 who offer maths or physics or both.
Adri
I know its 20 but how to prove it
Inembo
You have 32+24=56who offer courses
Adri
56-36=20 who give both courses... I would say that
Adri
solution: In a question involving sets and Venn diagram, the sum of the members of set A + set B - the joint members of both set A and B + the members that are not in sets A or B = the total members of the set. In symbolic form n(A U B) = n(A) + n (B) - n (A and B) + n (A U B)'.
Mckenzie
In the case of sets A and B use the letters m and p to represent the sets and we have: n (M U P) = 40; n (M) = 24; n (P) = 32; n (M and P) = unknown; n (M U P)' = 4
Mckenzie
Now substitute the numerical values for the symbolic representation 40 = 24 + 32 - n(M and P) + 4 Now solve for the unknown using algebra: 40 = 24 + 32+ 4 - n(M and P) 40 = 60 - n(M and P) Add n(M and P), as well, subtract 40 from both sides of the equation to find the answer.
Mckenzie
40 - 40 + n(M and P) = 60 - 40 - n(M and P) + n(M and P) Solution: n(M and P) = 20
Mckenzie
thanks
Inembo
Simpler form: Add the sums of set M, set P and the complement of the union of sets M and P then subtract the number of students from the total.
Mckenzie
n(M and P) = (32 + 24 + 4) - 40 = 60 - 40 = 20
Mckenzie
how do i evaluate integral of x^1/2 In x
ayo Reply
first you simplify the given expression, which gives (x^2/2). Then you now integrate the above simplified expression which finally gives( lnx^2).
Ahmad
by using integration product formula
Roha
find derivative f(x)=1/x
Mul Reply
-1/x^2, use the chain rule
Andrew
f(x)=x^3-2x
Mul
what is domin in this question
noman
all real numbers . except zero
Roha
please try to guide me how?
Meher
what do u want to ask
Roha
?
Roha
the domain of the function is all real number excluding zero, because the rational function 1/x is a representation of a fractional equation (precisely inverse function). As in elementary mathematics the concept of dividing by zero is nonexistence, so zero will not make the fractional statement
Mckenzie
a function's answer/range should not be in the form of 1/0 and there should be no imaginary no. say square root of any negative no. (-1)^1/2
Roha
domain means everywhere along the x axis. since this function is not discontinuous anywhere along the x axis, then the domain is said to be all values of x.
Andrew
Derivative of a function
Waqar
right andrew ... this function is only discontinuous at 0
Roha
of sorry, I didn't realize he was taking about the function 1/x ...I thought he was referring to the function x^3-2x.
Andrew
yep...it's 1/x...!!!
Roha
true and cannot be apart of the domain that makes up the relation of the graph y = 1/x. The value of the denominator of the rational function can never be zero, because the result of the output value (range value of the graph when x =0) is undefined.
Mckenzie
👍
Roha
Therefore, when x = 0 the image of the rational function does not exist at this domain value, but exist at all other x values (domain) that makes the equation functional, and the graph drawable.
Mckenzie
👍
Roha
Roha are u A Student
Lutf
yes
Roha
What is the first fundermental theory of Calculus?
ZIMBA Reply
do u mean fundamental theorem ?
Roha
I want simple integral
aparna Reply
for MSc chemistry... simple formulas of integration
aparna
hello?
funny
how are you
funny
I don't understand integration
aparna
r u insane
aparna
integration is so simple not typical..
funny
tell me any questions about integration then i will solve.
funny
we use integration for whole values or for sum of values any there are some basic rule for integration..
funny
I just formulas
aparna
I just want formulas of integration
aparna
value of log ax cot-x cos-x
aparna
there are many formulas about integration
funny
more then one formula are exist about integration..
funny
so I want simple formulas Because I'm studying MSc chem...Nd have done bsc from bio...
aparna
I am M.sc physics now i am studying in m.phil
funny
so what can i do
aparna
I will send you basic formula for integration after two mint first of all i write then i will send you.
funny
send me your messenger id where i can send you formulas about integration because there is no option for image sending..
funny
integration f(X) dx this is basic formula of integration sign is not there you can look integration sign in methematics form... and f(X) my be any function any values
funny
you send me your any ID where i can send you information about integration
funny
send me SMS at this ID Adnan sathi Adnan sathi
funny
Hi
RIZWAN
I don't understand the formula
Adaeze Reply
who's formula
funny
which formula?
Roha
what is the advantages of mathematical economics
Mubarak
What is a independent variable
Sifiso Reply
a variable that does not depend on another.
Andrew
which can be any no... does not need to find its value by any other variable.. often x is independent and y is dependent
Roha
solve number one step by step
bil Reply
x-xcosx/sinsq.3x
Hasnain
x-xcosx/sin^23x
Hasnain
how to prove 1-sinx/cos x= cos x/-1+sin x?
Rochel Reply
1-sin x/cos x= cos x/-1+sin x
Rochel
how to prove 1-sun x/cos x= cos x / -1+sin x?
Rochel
how to prove tan^2 x=csc^2 x tan^2 x-1?
Rochel Reply
divide by tan^2 x giving 1=csc^2 x -1/tan^2 x, rewrite as: 1=1/sin^2 x -cos^2 x/sin^2 x, multiply by sin^2 x giving: sin^2 x=1-cos^2x. rewrite as the familiar sin^2 x + cos^2x=1 QED
Barnabas

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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11964/1.2
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