# 4.1 Exponential functions

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In this section, you will:
• Evaluate exponential functions.
• Find the equation of an exponential function.
• Use compound interest formulas.
• Evaluate exponential functions with base e.

India is the second most populous country in the world with a population of about $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1.25\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ billion people in 2013. The population is growing at a rate of about $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1.2%\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ each year http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/. Accessed February 24, 2014. . If this rate continues, the population of India will exceed China’s population by the year $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2031.$ When populations grow rapidly, we often say that the growth is “exponential,” meaning that something is growing very rapidly. To a mathematician, however, the term exponential growth has a very specific meaning. In this section, we will take a look at exponential functions , which model this kind of rapid growth.

## Identifying exponential functions

When exploring linear growth, we observed a constant rate of change—a constant number by which the output increased for each unit increase in input. For example, in the equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=3x+4,$ the slope tells us the output increases by 3 each time the input increases by 1. The scenario in the India population example is different because we have a percent change per unit time (rather than a constant change) in the number of people.

## Defining an exponential function

A study found that the percent of the population who are vegans in the United States doubled from 2009 to 2011. In 2011, 2.5% of the population was vegan, adhering to a diet that does not include any animal products—no meat, poultry, fish, dairy, or eggs. If this rate continues, vegans will make up 10% of the U.S. population in 2015, 40% in 2019, and 80% in 2050.

What exactly does it mean to grow exponentially ? What does the word double have in common with percent increase ? People toss these words around errantly. Are these words used correctly? The words certainly appear frequently in the media.

• Percent change refers to a change based on a percent of the original amount.
• Exponential growth refers to an increase based on a constant multiplicative rate of change over equal increments of time, that is, a percent increase of the original amount over time.
• Exponential decay refers to a decrease based on a constant multiplicative rate of change over equal increments of time, that is, a percent decrease of the original amount over time.

For us to gain a clear understanding of exponential growth    , let us contrast exponential growth with linear growth . We will construct two functions. The first function is exponential. We will start with an input of 0, and increase each input by 1. We will double the corresponding consecutive outputs. The second function is linear. We will start with an input of 0, and increase each input by 1. We will add 2 to the corresponding consecutive outputs. See [link] .

$x$ $f\left(x\right)={2}^{x}$ $g\left(x\right)=2x$
0 1 0
1 2 2
2 4 4
3 8 6
4 16 8
5 32 10
6 64 12

From [link] we can infer that for these two functions, exponential growth dwarfs linear growth.

• Exponential growth refers to the original value from the range increases by the same percentage over equal increments found in the domain.
• Linear growth refers to the original value from the range increases by the same amount over equal increments found in the domain.

the sum of any two linear polynomial is what
Momo
how can are find the domain and range of a relations
A cell phone company offers two plans for minutes. Plan A: $15 per month and$2 for every 300 texts. Plan B: $25 per month and$0.50 for every 100 texts. How many texts would you need to send per month for plan B to save you money?
6000
Robert
more than 6000
Robert
can I see the picture
How would you find if a radical function is one to one?
how to understand calculus?
with doing calculus
SLIMANE
Thanks po.
Jenica
Hey I am new to precalculus, and wanted clarification please on what sine is as I am floored by the terms in this app? I don't mean to sound stupid but I have only completed up to college algebra.
I don't know if you are looking for a deeper answer or not, but the sine of an angle in a right triangle is the length of the opposite side to the angle in question divided by the length of the hypotenuse of said triangle.
Marco
can you give me sir tips to quickly understand precalculus. Im new too in that topic. Thanks
Jenica
if you remember sine, cosine, and tangent from geometry, all the relationships are the same but they use x y and r instead (x is adjacent, y is opposite, and r is hypotenuse).
Natalie
it is better to use unit circle than triangle .triangle is only used for acute angles but you can begin with. Download any application named"unit circle" you find in it all you need. unit circle is a circle centred at origine (0;0) with radius r= 1.
SLIMANE
What is domain
johnphilip
the standard equation of the ellipse that has vertices (0,-4)&(0,4) and foci (0, -15)&(0,15) it's standard equation is x^2 + y^2/16 =1 tell my why is it only x^2? why is there no a^2?
what is foci?
This term is plural for a focus, it is used for conic sections. For more detail or other math questions. I recommend researching on "Khan academy" or watching "The Organic Chemistry Tutor" YouTube channel.
Chris
how to determine the vertex,focus,directrix and axis of symmetry of the parabola by equations
i want to sure my answer of the exercise
what is the diameter of(x-2)²+(y-3)²=25
how to solve the Identity ?
what type of identity
Jeffrey
Confunction Identity
Barcenas
how to solve the sums
meena
hello guys
meena
For each year t, the population of a forest of trees is represented by the function A(t) = 117(1.029)t. In a neighboring forest, the population of the same type of tree is represented by the function B(t) = 86(1.025)t.
by how many trees did forest "A" have a greater number?
Shakeena
32.243
Kenard