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Introduction

Archer J.P. Martin ( [link] ) and Anthony T. James ( [link] ) introduced liquid–gas partition chromatography in 1950 at the meeting of the Biochemical Society held in London, a few months before submitting three fundamental papers to the Biochemical Journal . It was this work that provided the foundation for the development of gas chromatography. In fact, Martin envisioned gas chromatography almost ten years before, while working with R. L. M. Synge ( [link] ) on partition chromatography. Martin and Synge, who were awarded the chemistry Nobel prize in 1941, suggested that separation of volatile compounds could be achieved by using a vapor as the mobile phase instead of a liquid.

British chemist Archer J. P. Martin, FRS (1910-2002) shared the Nobel Prize in 1952 for partition chromatography.
British chemist Anthony T. James (1922-2006).
British biochemist Richard L. M. Synge, FRS (1914-1994) shared the Nobel Prize in 1952 for partition chromatography.

Gas chromatography quickly gained general acceptance because it was introduced at the time when improved analytical controls were required in the petrochemical industries, and new techniques were needed in order to overcome the limitations of old laboratory methods. Nowadays, gas chromatography is a mature technique, widely used worldwide for the analysis of almost every type of organic compound, even those that are not volatile in their original state but can be converted to volatile derivatives.

The chromatographic process

Gas chromatography is a separation technique in which the components of a sample partition between two phases:

  1. The stationary phase.
  2. The mobile gas phase.

According to the state of the stationary phase, gas chromatography can be classified in gas-solid chromatography (GSC), where the stationary phase is a solid, and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) that uses a liquid as stationary phase. GLC is to a great extent more widely used than GSC.

During a GC separation, the sample is vaporized and carried by the mobile gas phase (i.e., the carrier gas) through the column. Separation of the different components is achieved based on their relative vapor pressure and affinities for the stationary phase. The affinity of a substance towards the stationary phase can be described in chemical terms as an equilibrium constant called the distribution constant K c , also known as the partition coefficient, [link] , where [A] s is the concentration of compound A in the stationary phase and [A] m is the concentration of compound A in the stationary phase.

The distribution constant (K c ) controls the movement of the different compounds through the column, therefore differences in the distribution constant allow for the chromatographic separation. [link] shows a schematic representation of the chromatographic process. K c is temperature dependent, and also depends on the chemical nature of the stationary phase. Thus, temperature can be used as a way to improve the separation of different compounds through the column, or a different stationary phase.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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