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A sample plot of I-V data taken with test setup shown in [link] and [link] .

One improvement that can be made to the above system is to replace the floodlight with a simple slide projector. The floodlight will typically have a spectrum very heavily weighted in the red and infrared and will be deficient in the shorter wavelengths. Though still not a perfect match to the solar spectrum, the slide projector does at least have more output at the shorter wavelengths; at the same time it will have less IR output compared to the floodlight and the combination should give a somewhat more representative response. A typical set up is shown in [link] .

Test setup using a slide projector.

The mirror in [link] serves two purposes. First, it turns the beam so the test object can be laid flat a measurement bed and second it serves to collimate and concentrate the beam by focusing it on a smaller area, giving a better approximation of terrestrial solar intensity over a range of intensities such as AM2 (air mass 2) through AM0 ( [link] ). An estimate of the intensity can be made using a calibrated silicon solar cell of the sort that can be purchased online from any of several scientific hobby shops such as Edmunds Scientific. While still far from enabling a quantitative measurement of device output, the technique will at least provide indications within a ballpark range of actual cell efficiency.

Solar irradiance spectrum at AM 0 (yellow) and AM2 (red). Adapted from M. Pagliaro, G. Palmisano, and R. Ciriminna, Flexible Solar Cells, John Wiley, New York (2008).

[link] shows a measurement made with the test device placed at a distance from the mirror for which the intensity was previously determined to be equivalent to AM1 solar intensity, or 1000 watts per square meter. Since the beam passes through the projector lens and reflects from the second surface of the slightly concave mirror, there is essentially no UV light left in the beam that could be harmful to the naked eye. Still, if this technique is used, it is recommended that observations be made through a piece of ordinary glass such as eyeglasses or even a small glass shield inserted for that purpose. The blue area in the figure represents the largest rectangle that can be drawn under the curve and gives the maximum output power of the cell, which is simply the product of the current and voltage at maximum power.

[link] is a plot of current density, obtained by dividing the current from the device by its area. It is common to normalize the output is this manner.

If the power density of the incident light (P 0 ) is known in W/cm 2 , the device efficiency can be obtained by dividing the maximum power (as determined from I m and V m ) by the incident power density times the area of the cell (A cell ), [link] .

The picture shows the relative brightness of the light beam at an approximate intensity of 1000 W/m 2 . A small concave mirror serves to both turn the beam and to concentrate it a small amount to reach that level.

Measurement of the photoconductivity of experimental photovoltaic materials

In many cases it is beneficial to determine the photoconductivity of a new material prior to cell fabrication. This allows for the rapid screening of materials or synthesis variable of a single material even before issues of cell design and construction are considered.

[link] shows the circuit diagram of a simple photoconductivity test made with a slightly different set up compared to that shown above. In this case a voltage is placed across the sample after it has been connected to a resistor placed in series with the sample. A simple 9 V battery secured with a battery holder or a small ac to dc power converter can be used to supply the voltage. The sample and resistor sit inside a small box with an open top.

Circuit diagram for simple photoconductance test.

The voltage across (in this case) the 10 ohm resister was measured with a shutter held over the sample (a simple piece of cardboard sitting on the top of the box) and with the shutter removed. The difference in voltage is a direct indication of the change in the photoconductance of the sample and again is a very quick and simple test to see if the material being developed does indeed have a photoresponse of some sort without having to make a full device structure. Adjusting the position of the light source so that the incident light power density at the sample surface is 200 or 500 or 1000 W/m 2 enables an approximate numerical estimate of the photocurrent that was generated and again can help guide the development of new materials for solar cell applications. The results from such a measurement are shown in [link] for a sample of carbon nanotubes (CNT) coated with CdSe by liquid phase deposition (LPD).

Photoresponse of a carbon nanotube (CNT) carpet coated with CdSe by liquid phase deposited.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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