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These properties of viscosity, diffusivity, and density are related to each other. The change in temperature and pressure can affect all of them in different combinations. For instance, increasing pressure causes a rise for viscosity and rising viscosity results in declining diffusivity.

Supercritical fluid chromatography (sfc)

Just like supercritical fluids combine the benefits of liquids and gases, SFC bring the advantages and strong aspects of HPLC and GC together. SFC can be more advantageous than HPLC and GC when compounds which decompose at high temperatures with GC and do not have functional groups to be detected by HPLC detection systems are analyzed.

There are three major qualities for column chromatographies:

  • Selectivity.
  • Efficiency.
  • Sensitivity.

Generally, HPLC has better selectivity that SFC owing to changeable mobile phases (especially during a particular experimental run) and a wide range of stationary phases. Although SFC does not have the selectivity of HPLC, it has good quality in terms of sensitivity and efficiency. SFC enables change of some properties during the chromatographic process. This tuning ability allows the optimization of the analysis. Also, SFC has a broader range of detectors than HPLC. SFC surpasses GC for the analysis of easily decomposable substances; these materials can be used with SFC due to its ability to work with lower temperatures than GC.

Instrumentation for sfc

As it can be seen in [link] , SFC has a similar setup to an HPLC instrument. They use similar stationary phases with similar column types. However, there are some differences. Temperature is critical for supercritical fluids, so there should be a heat control tool in the system similar to that of GC. Also, there should be a pressure control mechanism, a restrictor, because pressure is another essential parameter in order for supercritical fluid materials to be kept at the required level. A microprocessor mechanism is placed in the instrument for SFC. This unit collects data for pressure, oven temperature, and detector performance to control the related pieces of the instrument.

Scheme of a supercritical fluid chromatography instrument. Adapted from D. A. Skoog and J. J. Leary, Principles of Instrumental Analysis , Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia (1992).

Stationary phases

SFC columns are similar to HPLC columns in terms of coating materials. Open-tubular columns and packed columns are the two most common types used in SFC. Open-tubular ones are preferred and they have similarities to HPLC fused-silica columns. This type of column contains an internal coating of a cross-linked siloxane material as a stationary phase. The thickness of the coating can be 0.05-1.0 μm. The length of the column can range from of 10 to 20 m.

Mobile phases

There is a wide variety of materials used as mobile phase in SFC. The mobile phase can be selected from the solvent groups of inorganic solvents, hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, halides; or can be acetone, acetonitrile, pyridine, etc. The most common supercritical fluid which is used in SFC is carbon dioxide because its critical temperature and pressure are easy to reach. Additionally, carbon dioxide is low-cost, easy to obtain, inert towards UV, non-poisonous and a good solvent for non-polar molecules. Other than carbon dioxide, ethane, n-butane, N 2 O, dichlorodifluoromethane, diethyl ether, ammonia, tetrahydrofuran can be used. [link] shows select solvents and their T c and P c values.

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
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silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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