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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (xps)

XPS confirms the presence of different elements in functionalized SWNTs. This is useful for identification of heteroatom elements such as F and N, and then XPS can be used for quantification with simple substituent groups and used indirectly. Deconvolution of XPS is useful to study fine structures on SWNTs. However, the overlapping of binding energies in the spectrum complicates quantification.

Spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy is very informative and important for characterizing functionalized SWNTs. The tangential G mode ( ca . 1550 – 1600 cm -1 ) is characteristic of sp 2 carbons on the hexagonal graphene network. The D-band, so-called disorder mode (found at ca . 1295 cm -1 ) appears due to disruption of the hexagonal sp 2 network of SWNTs. The D-band was largely used to characterize functionalized SWNTs and ensure functionalization is covalent and occurred at the sidewalls. However, the observation of D band in Raman can also be related to presence of defects such as vacancies, 5-7 pairs, or dopants. Thus, using Raman to provide evidence of covalent functionalization needs to be done with caution. In particular, the use of Raman spectroscopy for a determination of the degree of functionalization is not reliable.

It has been shown that quantification with Raman is complicated by the distribution of functional groups on the sidewall of SWNTs. For example, if fluorinated-SWNTs (F-SWNTs) are functionalized with thiol or thiophene terminated moieties, TGA shows that they have similar level of functionalization. However, their relative intensities of D:G in Raman spectrum are quite different. The use of sulfur substituents allow for gold nanoparticles with 5 nm in diameter to be attached as a “chemical marker” for direct imaging of the distribution of functional groups. AFM and STM suggest that the functional groups of thio-SWNTs are group together while the thiophene groups are widely distributed on the sidewall of SWNTs. Thus the difference is not due to significant difference in substituent concentration but on substituent distribution, while Raman shows different D:G ratio.

Infra red spectroscopy

IR spectroscopy is useful in characterizing functional groups bound to SWNTs. A variety of organic functional groups on sidewall of SWNTs have been identified by IR, such as COOH(R), -CH 2 , -CH 3 , -NH 2 , -OH, etc. However, it is difficult to get direct functionalization information from IR spectroscopy. The C-F group has been identified by IR in F-SWNTs. However, C-C, C-N, C-O groups associated with the side-wall functionalization have not been observed in the appropriately functionalized SWNTs.

Uv/visible spectroscopy

UV/visible spectroscopy is maybe the most accessible technique that provides information about the electronic states of SWNTs, and hence functionalization. The absorption spectrum shows bands at ca . 1400 nm and 1800 nm for pristine SWNTs. A complete loss of such structure is observed after chemical alteration of SWNTs sidewalls. However, such information is not quantitative and also does not show what type of functional moiety is on the sidewall of SWNTs.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
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Source:  OpenStax, Carbon nanotubes. OpenStax CNX. Sep 30, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11576/1.1
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