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The applications of the QCM-D ranges from the deposition of nanoparticles into a surface, from the interaction of proteins within certain substrates. It can also monitors the bacterial amount of products when feed with different molecules, as the flexibility of the sensors into what can be deposited in them include nanoparticle, special functionalization or even cell and bacterias!

Experimental planning

In order to use QCM-D for studing the interaction of nanoparticles with a specific surface several steps must be followed. For demonstration purposes the following procedure will describe the use of a Q-Sense E4 with autosampler from Biolin Scientific. A summary is shown below as a quick guide to follow, but further details will be explained:

  1. Surface election and cleaning according with the manufacturer recommendations.
  2. Sample preparation including having the correct dilutions and enough sample for the running experiment.
  3. Equipment cleaning and set up of the correct parameters for the experiment.
  4. Data acquisition.
  5. Data interpretation.

Surface election

The decision of what surface of the the sensor to use is the most important decision to make fore each study. Biolin has a large library of available coatings ranging from different compositions of pure elements and oxides ( [link] ) to specific binding proteins. It is important to take into account the different chemistries of the sensors and the results we are looking for. For example studying a protein with high sulfur content on a gold sensor can lead to a false deposition results, as gold and sulfur have a high affinity to form bonds. For the purpose of this example, a gold coated sensor will be used in the remainder of the discussion.

From left to right, silica (SiO 2 ), gold (Au), and iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) coated sensors. Each one is 1 cm in diameter.

Sensor cleaning

Since QCM-D relies on the amount of mass that is deposited into the surface of the sensor, a thorough cleaning is needed to ensure there is no contaminants on the surface that can lead to errors in the measurement. The procedure the manufacturer established to clean a gold sensor is as follows:

  1. Put the sensor in the UV/ozone chamber for 10 minutes
  2. Prepare 10 mL of a 5:1:1 solution of hydrogen peroxide:ammonia:water
  3. Submerge in this solution at 75 °C for 5 minutes.
  4. Rinse with copious amount of milliQ water.
  5. Dry with inert gas.
  6. Put the sensor in the UV/ozone chamber for 10 minutes as shown in [link] .
Gold sensors in loader of the UV/ozone chamber in the final step of the cleaning process.

Once the sensors are clean, extreme caution should be taken to avoid contamination of the surface. The sensors can be loaded in the flow chamber of the equipment making sure that the T-mark of the sensor matches the T mark of the chamber in order to make sure the electrodes are in constant contact. The correct position is shown in [link] .

Correct position of the sensor in the chamber.

Sample preparation

As the top range of mass that can be detected is merely micrograms, solutions must be prepared accordingly. For a typical run, a buffer solution is needed in which the deposition will be studied as well as, the sample itself and a solution of 2% of sodium dodecylsulfate [CH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 CH 2 OSO 3 Na, SDS]. For this example we will be using nanoparticles of magnetic iron oxide (nMag) coated with PAMS, and as a buffer 8% NaCl in DI water.

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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