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Wurtzite

This is a hexagonal form of the zinc sulfide. It is identical in the number of and types of atoms, but it is built from two interpenetrating hcp lattices as opposed to the fcc lattices in zinc blende. As with zinc blende all the atoms in a wurtzite structure are 4-coordinate. The wurtzite unit cell is shown in [link] . A number of inter atomic distances may be calculated for any material with a wurtzite cell using the lattice parameter ( a ).

However, it should be noted that these formulae do not necessarily apply when the ratio a / c is different from the ideal value of 1.632.

Unit cell structure of a wurtzite lattice. Zinc atoms are shown in green (small spheres), sulfur atoms shown in red (large spheres), and the dashed lines show the unit cell.

Cesium chloride

The cesium chloride structure is found in materials with large cations and relatively small anions. It has a simple (primitive) cubic cell ( [link] ) with a chloride ion at the corners of the cube and the cesium ion at the body center. The coordination numbers of both Cs + and Cl - , with the inner atomic distances determined from the cell lattice constant ( a ).

Β-tin.

The room temperature allotrope of tin is β-tin or white tin. It has a tetragonal structure, in which each tin atom has four nearest neighbors (Sn-Sn = 3.016 Å) arranged in a very flattened tetrahedron, and two next nearest neighbors (Sn-Sn = 3.175 Å). The overall structure of β-tin consists of fused hexagons, each being linked to its neighbor via a four-membered Sn 4 ring.

Defects in crystalline solids

Up to this point we have only been concerned with ideal structures for crystalline solids in which each atom occupies a designated point in the crystal lattice. Unfortunately, defects ordinarily exist in equilibrium between the crystal lattice and its environment. These defects are of two general types: point defects and extended defects. As their names imply, point defects are associated with a single crystal lattice site, while extended defects occur over a greater range.

Point defects: “too many or too few” or “just plain wrong”

Point defects have a significant effect on the properties of a semiconductor, so it is important to understand the classes of point defects and the characteristics of each type. [link] summarizes various classes of native point defects, however, they may be divided into two general classes; defects with the wrong number of atoms (deficiency or surplus) and defects where the identity of the atoms is incorrect.

Point defects in a crystal lattice.

Interstitial impurity

An interstitial impurity occurs when an extra atom is positioned in a lattice site that should be vacant in an ideal structure ( [link] b). Since all the adjacent lattice sites are filled the additional atom will have to squeeze itself into the interstitial site, resulting in distortion of the lattice and alteration in the local electronic behavior of the structure. Small atoms, such as carbon, will prefer to occupy these interstitial sites. Interstitial impurities readily diffuse through the lattice via interstitial diffusion, which can result in a change of the properties of a material as a function of time. Oxygen impurities in silicon generally are located as interstitials.

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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