# 8.1 Measuring the specific surface area of nanoparticle suspensions

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## Introduction

Surface area is a property of immense importance in the nano-world, especially in the area of heterogeneous catalysis. A solid catalyst works with its active sites binding to the reactants, and hence for a given active site reactivity, the higher the number of active sites available, the faster the reaction will occur. In heterogeneous catalysis, if the catalyst is in the form of spherical nanoparticles, most of the active sites are believed to be present on the outer surface. Thus it is very important to know the catalyst surface area in order to get a measure of the reaction time. One expresses this in terms of volume specific surface area, i.e., surface area/volume although in industry it is quite common to express it as surface area per unit mass of catalyst, e.g., m 2 /g.

## Overview of nmr

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the study of the nuclei of the response of an atom to an external magnetic field. Many nuclei have a net magnetic moment with $I\neq 0$ , along with an angular momentum in one direction where I is the spin quantum number of the nucleus. In the presence of an external magnetic field, a nucleus would precess around the field. With all the nuclei precessing around the external magnetic field, a measurable signal is produced.

NMR can be used on any nuclei with an odd number of protons or neutrons or both, like the nuclei of hydrogen ( 1 H), carbon ( 13 C), phosphorous ( 31 P), etc. Hydrogen has a relatively large magnetic moment (μ = 14.1 x 10 -27 J/T) and hence it is used in NMR logging and NMR rock studies. The hydrogen nucleus composes of a single positively charged proton that can be seen as a loop of current generating a magnetic field. It is may be considered as a tiny bar magnet with the magnetic axis along the spin axis itself as shown in [link] . In the absence of any external forces, a sample with hydrogen alone will have the individual magnetic moments randomly aligned as shown in [link] .

## Advantages of nmr over bet technique

BET measurements follow the BET (Brunner-Emmet-Teller) adsorption isotherm of a gas on a solid surface. Adsorption experiments of a gas of known composition can help determine the specific surface area of the solid particle. This technique has been the main source of surface area analysis used industrially for a long time. However BET techniques take a lot of time for the gas-adsorption step to be complete while one shall see in the course of this module that NMR can give you results in times averaging around 30 minutes depending on the sample. BET also requires careful sample preparation with the sample being in dry powder form, whereas NMR can accept samples in the liquid state as well.

## Polarization

Polarization involves the alignment of the individual magnetic nuclei in the presence of a static external magnetic field B o . This external field exerts a torque that forces the spinning nuclei to precess around it by a frequency given by the Larmor frequency given by [link] , where γ is the gyromagnetic ratio which is a characteristic property of the nucleus. For hydrogen, γ/2π = 42.58 MHz/Tesla. This value is different for different elements.

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
how I can reaction of mercury?