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Extraction modes

There are two modes in terms of collecting and detecting the components:

  • Off-line extraction.
  • On-line extraction.

Off-line extraction is done by taking the mobile phase out with the extracted components and directing them towards the collection chamber. At this point, supercritical fluid phase is evaporated and released to atmosphere and the components are captured in a solution or a convenient adsorption surface. Then the extracted fragments are processed and prepared for a separation method. This extra manipulation step between extractor and chromatography instrument can cause errors. The on-line method is more sensitive because it directly transfers all extracted materials to a separation unit, mostly a chromatography instrument, without taking them out of the mobile phase. In this extraction/detection type, there is no extra sample preparation after extraction for separation process. This minimizes the errors coming from manipulation steps. Additionally, sample loss does not occur and sensitivity increases.

Applications of sfe

SFE can be applied to a broad range of materials such as polymers, oils and lipids, carbonhydrates, pesticides, organic pollutants, volatile toxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, biomolecules, foods, flavors, pharmaceutical metabolites, explosives, and organometallics, etc. Common industrial applications include the pharmaceutical and biochemical industry, the polymer industry, industrial synthesis and extraction, natural product chemistry, and the food industry.

Examples of materials analyzed in environmental applications: oils and fats, pesticides, alkanes, organic pollutants, volatile toxins, herbicides, nicotin, phenanthrene, fatty acids, aromatic surfactants in samples from clay to petroleum waste, from soil to river sediments. In food analyses: caffeine, peroxides, oils, acids, cholesterol, etc. are extracted from samples such as coffee, olive oil, lemon, cereals, wheat, potatoes and dog feed. Through industrial applications, the extracted materials vary from additives to different oligomers, and from petroleum fractions to stabilizers. Samples analyzed are plastics, PVC, paper, wood etc. Drug metabolites, enzymes, steroids are extracted from plasma, urine, serum or animal tissues in biochemical applications.

Summary

Supercritical fluid chromatography and supercritical fluid extraction are techniques that take advantage of the unique properties of supercritical fluids. As such, they provide advantages over other related methods in both chromatography and extraction. Sometimes they are used as alternative analytical techniques, while other times they are used as complementary partners for binary systems. Both SFC and SFE demonstrate their versatility through the wide array of applications in many distinct domains in an advantageous way.

Bibliography

  • M. Caude and D. Thiebaut, Practical Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Extraction , Harwood Academic Publishers, Switzerland (1999).
  • M. D. Luque de Castro, M. Valcarcel, and M. T. Tena, Analytical Supercritical Fluid Extraction , Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1994).
  • D. A. Skoog and J. J. Leary, Principles of Instrumental Analysis , Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia (1992).
  • L. T. Taylor, Supercritical Fluid Extraction , Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York, (1996).

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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