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Procedure | Effective Dose (mSv) |
---|---|
Chest | 0.02 |
Dental | 0.01 |
Skull | 0.07 |
Leg | 0.02 |
Mammogram | 0.40 |
Barium enema | 7.0 |
Upper GI | 3.0 |
CT head | 2.0 |
CT abdomen | 10.0 |
Entering the given values yields
To convert from curies to becquerels and years to seconds, we write
One mole of a nuclide ${}^{A}\text{X}$ has a mass of A grams, so that one mole of ${}^{137}\text{Cs}$ has a mass of 137 g. A mole has $6.02\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{23}$ nuclei. Thus the mass of ${}^{137}\text{Cs}$ released was
Check Your Understanding Radiation propagates in all directions from its source, much as electromagnetic radiation from a light bulb. Is activity concept more analogous to power, intensity, or brightness?
power
Atomic mass number | $A=Z+N$ |
Standard format for expressing an isotope | ${}_{Z}^{A}\text{X}$ |
Nuclear radius, where r _{0} is the radius of a single proton | $r={r}_{0}{A}^{1\text{/}3}$ |
Mass defect | $\text{\Delta}m=Z{m}_{p}+(A-Z){m}_{n}-{m}_{\text{nuc}}$ |
Binding energy | $E=(\text{\Delta}m){c}^{2}$ |
Binding energy per nucleon | $BEN=\frac{{E}_{b}}{A}$ |
Radioactive decay rate | $-\frac{dN}{dt}=\lambda N$ |
Radioactive decay law | $N={N}_{0}{e}^{\text{\u2212}\lambda t}$ |
Decay constant | $\lambda =\frac{0.693}{{T}_{1\text{/}2}}$ |
Lifetime of a substance | $\stackrel{\u2013}{T}=\frac{1}{\text{\lambda}}$ |
Activity of a radioactive substance | $A={A}_{0}{e}^{\text{\u2212}\lambda t}$ |
Activity of a radioactive substance (linear form) | $\text{ln}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}A=\text{\u2212}\lambda t+\text{ln}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{A}_{0}$ |
Alpha decay | ${}_{Z}^{A}\text{X}\to {}_{Z-2}^{A-4}\text{X}+{}_{2}^{4}\text{H}\text{e}$ |
Beta decay | ${}_{Z}^{A}\text{X}\to {}_{Z+1}^{\phantom{\rule{1.5em}{0ex}}A}\text{X}+{}_{\mathrm{-1}}^{\phantom{\rule{0.7em}{0ex}}0}\text{e}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{+}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\stackrel{\u2013}{v}$ |
Positron emission | ${}_{Z}^{A}\text{X}\to {}_{Z-1}^{\phantom{\rule{1.5em}{0ex}}A}\text{X}+{}_{\text{+}1}^{\phantom{\rule{0.7em}{0ex}}0}\text{e}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{+}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}v$ |
Gamma decay | ${}_{Z}^{A}\text{X}*\to {}_{Z}^{A}\text{X}+\gamma $ |
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