# 2.1 Molecular model of an ideal gas  (Page 6/19)

 Page 6 / 19

The ideal gas law is closely related to energy: The units on both sides of the equation are joules. The right-hand side of the ideal gas law equation is $N{k}_{\text{B}}T.$ This term is roughly the total translational kinetic energy (which, when discussing gases, refers to the energy of translation of a molecule, not that of vibration of its atoms or rotation) of N molecules at an absolute temperature T , as we will see formally in the next section. The left-hand side of the ideal gas law equation is pV . As mentioned in the example on the number of molecules in an ideal gas, pressure multiplied by volume has units of energy. The energy of a gas can be changed when the gas does work as it increases in volume, something we explored in the preceding chapter, and the amount of work is related to the pressure. This is the process that occurs in gasoline or steam engines and turbines, as we’ll see in the next chapter.

## Problem-solving strategy: the ideal gas law

Step 1. Examine the situation to determine that an ideal gas is involved. Most gases are nearly ideal unless they are close to the boiling point or at pressures far above atmospheric pressure.

Step 2. Make a list of what quantities are given or can be inferred from the problem as stated (identify the known quantities).

Step 3. Identify exactly what needs to be determined in the problem (identify the unknown quantities). A written list is useful.

Step 4. Determine whether the number of molecules or the number of moles is known or asked for to decide whether to use the ideal gas law as $pV=N{k}_{\text{B}}T,$ where N is the number of molecules, or $pV=nRT,$ where n is the number of moles.

Step 5. Convert known values into proper SI units (K for temperature, Pa for pressure, ${\text{m}}^{3}$ for volume, molecules for N , and moles for n ). If the units of the knowns are consistent with one of the non-SI values of R , you can leave them in those units. Be sure to use absolute temperature and absolute pressure.

Step 6. Solve the ideal gas law for the quantity to be determined (the unknown quantity). You may need to take a ratio of final states to initial states to eliminate the unknown quantities that are kept fixed.

Step 7. Substitute the known quantities, along with their units, into the appropriate equation and obtain numerical solutions complete with units.

Step 8. Check the answer to see if it is reasonable: Does it make sense?

## The van der waals equation of state

We have repeatedly noted that the ideal gas law is an approximation. How can it be improved upon? The van der Waals equation of state    (named after the Dutch physicist Johannes van der Waals , 1837−1923) improves it by taking into account two factors. First, the attractive forces between molecules, which are stronger at higher density and reduce the pressure, are taken into account by adding to the pressure a term equal to the square of the molar density multiplied by a positive coefficient a . Second, the volume of the molecules is represented by a positive constant b , which can be thought of as the volume of a mole of molecules. This is subtracted from the total volume to give the remaining volume that the molecules can move in. The constants a and b are determined experimentally for each gas. The resulting equation is

#### Questions & Answers

what is calorimeter
odionyenma Reply
heat measuring device
Suvransu
What is mean electric potential
Biren Reply
Electric density formula
Biren Reply
Int E•dA
Vineet
what is relation betweeen potential energy of a system and work done in bringing last chaege from infinity
Shikhar Reply
Einstein and his general theory of relativity, a very nice concept,which revolutionize our modern world.
Antares Reply
what's the theory of relativity?
Piyali
it related to universe time period
jyotirmayee
it is a theory in which time is taken as relative,for diff. motion of objects.
Antares
no !!!
jyotirmayee
it is E=mc'square
jyotirmayee
what is black hole?
jyotirmayee
E=mc^2 is just a reln which sums up everything dude
Antares
what does e=mc^2 stand for?explain
Piyali
m not dude
jyotirmayee
e for speed of light
jyotirmayee
c for speed of light
jyotirmayee
m for mass of object
jyotirmayee
black hole is a super massive object in space gravitation pull of which s so strong dt evn light cannot escape. John wheeler 1st detected it, n concept of it ws given by Einstein himself from his general theory of relativity. Basically v cn si 3 types of it super massive, interstellar n intermediate
Antares
which topic now u studying?
jyotirmayee
e defined? sorry it,s wrong
jyotirmayee
Why?
Arzoodan
how black holes r formed?
Piyali
e is not speed of light
jyotirmayee
black holes formed when the centre of very massive star collapsed itself
jyotirmayee
e is energy.
Antares
what do u mean by quantum mechanics?
jyotirmayee
in most of d cases black holes r formed by massive collapsed star or star system
Antares
sahoo u don't seem to understand relative physics, plz study that first.
Antares
exatly...
Arzoodan
Apollo is the name of a satellite !!!!!
jyotirmayee
quantum mechanics is d study of physics describing nature at d smallest level of energy of atoms n subatomic particles.
Antares
qm means explains about the microscopic particles..
KRANTHI
nope name of d sun god
Antares
why the mercury used in thermometers?
jyotirmayee
Ali brother ur exactly spelling is wrong,,,,,
jyotirmayee
why the colour of tube light white?
jyotirmayee
why the mouth became red colour ,,by the regular eating of leaf called ,,betel combining with areca?
jyotirmayee
all formula for calculate specific latent heat of any substance
Idowu Reply
hello
Nigar
Hi, your real Nigga...? Or this jock?
Arzoodan
real
Nigar
You from Pakistan or India?
Arzoodan
c'mon guys.. let's talk Physics.
Yoblaze
mass multiplied with latent heat of a substance
Yoblaze
What you doing about Physics
Arzoodan
you both?
jyotirmayee
in which class?
jyotirmayee
physics is the only subject which underestimated chemistry ,,bio
jyotirmayee
how capacitor is made in inst?
Piyali
what is dipole moment
Bilal Reply
it is the product of electric charges and distance between the two charges
Shikhar
yeap. this correct answer...
Arzoodan
mishra true thanks dia
Ssempala
product of separation of the poles, the rest shikhar got is right
Brad
brad is separation and distance ,are they different?
Ssempala
What is dielectric
Ashis Reply
its a type of medium. generally poor conductors. but their conductivity can be changed
vedanth
you just have to add impurities
vedanth
Thanks
Ssempala
grt
Ssempala
a material which behave as conductor
Shikhar
insulating material, energy level for electron transfer is very high e.g used to increase a magnetic field in a capacitor
Brad
What is the difference between specific heat capacity and heat capacity? Give the equations
elly Reply
presentation on power
Dyutee Reply
relation between Celsius and Kelvin
Anish Reply
0" degree Celsius=273kelvin
jyotirmayee
Newton's second laws is call with
Dyutee Reply
what is mean by thermodynamics
Prasad Reply
it is study about temperature and it's equilibrium
thiru
Its the study of heat and its relation with others kind of energy
Antonio
state caulombs law clearly
constand Reply
show mathematically that an electron has the greater speed than the proton when they attract each other
ezra Reply
show mathematically that an electron has the greater speed than the proton when they attract each other
srikanta
@ezra & srikanta; for electrons: a=ke^2/(mr^2) and for protons: a=kp^2/(mr^2)
Sikandar

### Read also:

#### Get the best University physics vol... course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'University physics volume 2' conversation and receive update notifications?

 By Mistry Bhavesh By