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Applications of superconductors

Superconductors can be used to make superconducting magnets. These magnets are 10 times stronger than the strongest electromagnets. These magnets are currently in use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which produces high-quality images of the body interior without dangerous radiation.

Another interesting application of superconductivity is the SQUID    (superconducting quantum interference device). A SQUID is a very sensitive magnetometer used to measure extremely subtle magnetic fields. The operation of the SQUID is based on superconducting loops containing Josephson junctions. A Josephson junction    is the result of a theoretical prediction made by B. D. Josephson in an article published in 1962. In the article, Josephson described how a supercurrent can flow between two pieces of superconductor separated by a thin layer of insulator. This phenomenon is now called the Josephson effect. The SQUID consists of a superconducting current loop containing two Josephson junctions, as shown in [link] . When the loop is placed in even a very weak magnetic field, there is an interference effect that depends on the strength of the magnetic field.

Picture shows the schematics of a SQUID. Current enters a loop and split into two pathways. Two Josephson junctions are placed on the opposite sides of loop. Magnetic field goes through the loop perpendicularly to the current flowing through it.
The SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) uses a superconducting current loop and two Josephson junctions to detect magnetic fields as low as 10 −14 T (Earth’s magnet field is on the order of 0.3 × 10 −5 T ).

Superconductivity is a fascinating and useful phenomenon. At critical temperatures near the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, superconductivity has special applications in MRIs, particle accelerators, and high-speed trains. Will we reach a state where we can have materials enter the superconducting phase at near room temperatures? It seems a long way off, but if scientists in 1911 were asked if we would reach liquid-nitrogen temperatures with a ceramic, they might have thought it implausible.

Summary

  • Superconductivity is a phenomenon that occurs in some materials when cooled to very low critical temperatures, resulting in a resistance of exactly zero and the expulsion of all magnetic fields.
  • Materials that are normally good conductors (such as copper, gold, and silver) do not experience superconductivity.
  • Superconductivity was first observed in mercury by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911. In 1986, Dr. Ching Wu Chu of Houston University fabricated a brittle, ceramic compound with a critical temperature close to the temperature of liquid nitrogen.
  • Superconductivity can be used in the manufacture of superconducting magnets for use in MRIs and high-speed, levitated trains.

Key equations

Average electrical current I ave = Δ Q Δ t
Definition of an ampere 1 A = 1 C/s
Electrical current I = d Q d t
Drift velocity v d = I n q A
Current density I = area J · d A
Resistivity ρ = E J
Common expression of Ohm’s law V = I R
Resistivity as a function of temperature ρ = ρ 0 [ 1 + α ( T T 0 ) ]
Definition of resistance R V I
Resistance of a cylinder of material R = ρ L A
Temperature dependence of resistance R = R 0 ( 1 + α Δ T )
Electric power P = I V
Power dissipated by a resistor P = I 2 R = V 2 R

Questions & Answers

what is calorimeter
odionyenma Reply
heat measuring device
Suvransu
What is mean electric potential
Biren Reply
Electric density formula
Biren Reply
Int E•dA
Vineet
what is relation betweeen potential energy of a system and work done in bringing last chaege from infinity
Shikhar Reply
Einstein and his general theory of relativity, a very nice concept,which revolutionize our modern world.
Antares Reply
what's the theory of relativity?
Piyali
it related to universe time period
jyotirmayee
it is a theory in which time is taken as relative,for diff. motion of objects.
Antares
no !!!
jyotirmayee
it is E=mc'square
jyotirmayee
what is black hole?
jyotirmayee
E=mc^2 is just a reln which sums up everything dude
Antares
what does e=mc^2 stand for?explain
Piyali
m not dude
jyotirmayee
e for speed of light
jyotirmayee
c for speed of light
jyotirmayee
m for mass of object
jyotirmayee
black hole is a super massive object in space gravitation pull of which s so strong dt evn light cannot escape. John wheeler 1st detected it, n concept of it ws given by Einstein himself from his general theory of relativity. Basically v cn si 3 types of it super massive, interstellar n intermediate
Antares
which topic now u studying?
jyotirmayee
e defined? sorry it,s wrong
jyotirmayee
Why?
Arzoodan
how black holes r formed?
Piyali
e is not speed of light
jyotirmayee
black holes formed when the centre of very massive star collapsed itself
jyotirmayee
e is energy.
Antares
what do u mean by quantum mechanics?
jyotirmayee
in most of d cases black holes r formed by massive collapsed star or star system
Antares
sahoo u don't seem to understand relative physics, plz study that first.
Antares
exatly...
Arzoodan
Apollo is the name of a satellite !!!!!
jyotirmayee
quantum mechanics is d study of physics describing nature at d smallest level of energy of atoms n subatomic particles.
Antares
qm means explains about the microscopic particles..
KRANTHI
nope name of d sun god
Antares
why the mercury used in thermometers?
jyotirmayee
Ali brother ur exactly spelling is wrong,,,,,
jyotirmayee
why the colour of tube light white?
jyotirmayee
why the mouth became red colour ,,by the regular eating of leaf called ,,betel combining with areca?
jyotirmayee
all formula for calculate specific latent heat of any substance
Idowu Reply
hello
Nigar
Hi, your real Nigga...? Or this jock?
Arzoodan
real
Nigar
You from Pakistan or India?
Arzoodan
c'mon guys.. let's talk Physics.
Yoblaze
mass multiplied with latent heat of a substance
Yoblaze
What you doing about Physics
Arzoodan
you both?
jyotirmayee
in which class?
jyotirmayee
physics is the only subject which underestimated chemistry ,,bio
jyotirmayee
how capacitor is made in inst?
Piyali
what is dipole moment
Bilal Reply
it is the product of electric charges and distance between the two charges
Shikhar
yeap. this correct answer...
Arzoodan
mishra true thanks dia
Ssempala
product of separation of the poles, the rest shikhar got is right
Brad
brad is separation and distance ,are they different?
Ssempala
What is dielectric
Ashis Reply
its a type of medium. generally poor conductors. but their conductivity can be changed
vedanth
you just have to add impurities
vedanth
Thanks
Ssempala
grt
Ssempala
a material which behave as conductor
Shikhar
insulating material, energy level for electron transfer is very high e.g used to increase a magnetic field in a capacitor
Brad
What is the difference between specific heat capacity and heat capacity? Give the equations
elly Reply
presentation on power
Dyutee Reply
relation between Celsius and Kelvin
Anish Reply
0" degree Celsius=273kelvin
jyotirmayee
Newton's second laws is call with
Dyutee Reply
what is mean by thermodynamics
Prasad Reply
it is study about temperature and it's equilibrium
thiru
Its the study of heat and its relation with others kind of energy
Antonio
state caulombs law clearly
constand Reply
show mathematically that an electron has the greater speed than the proton when they attract each other
ezra Reply
show mathematically that an electron has the greater speed than the proton when they attract each other
srikanta
@ezra & srikanta; for electrons: a=ke^2/(mr^2) and for protons: a=kp^2/(mr^2)
Sikandar
Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
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