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(a) Use the ideal gas equation to estimate the temperature at which 1.00 kg of steam (molar mass M = 18.0 g/mol ) at a pressure of 1.50 × 10 6 Pa occupies a volume of 0.220 m 3 . (b) The van der Waals constants for water are a = 0.5537 Pa · m 6 / mol 2 and b = 3.049 × 10 −5 m 3 / mol . Use the Van der Waals equation of state to estimate the temperature under the same conditions. (c) The actual temperature is 779 K. Which estimate is better?

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One process for decaffeinating coffee uses carbon dioxide ( M = 44.0 g/mol ) at a molar density of about 14,600 mol/m 3 and a temperature of about 60 ° C . (a) Is CO 2 a solid, liquid, gas, or supercritical fluid under those conditions? (b) The van der Waals constants for carbon dioxide are a = 0.3658 Pa · m 6 / mol 2 and b = 4.286 × 10 −5 m 3 / mol . Using the van der Waals equation, estimate the pressure of CO 2 at that temperature and density.

a. supercritical fluid; b. 3.00 × 10 7 Pa

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On a winter day when the air temperature is 0 °C , the relative humidity is 50 % . Outside air comes inside and is heated to a room temperature of 20 °C . What is the relative humidity of the air inside the room. (Does this problem show why inside air is so dry in winter?)

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On a warm day when the air temperature is 30 °C , a metal can is slowly cooled by adding bits of ice to liquid water in it. Condensation first appears when the can reaches 15 °C . What is the relative humidity of the air?

40.18 %

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(a) People often think of humid air as “heavy.” Compare the densities of air with 0 % relative humidity and 100 % relative humidity when both are at 1 atm and 30 °C . Assume that the dry air is an ideal gas composed of molecules with a molar mass of 29.0 g/mol and the moist air is the same gas mixed with water vapor. (b) As discussed in the chapter on the applications of Newton’s laws, the air resistance felt by projectiles such as baseballs and golf balls is approximately F D = C ρ A v 2 / 2 , where ρ is the mass density of the air, A is the cross-sectional area of the projectile, and C is the projectile’s drag coefficient. For a fixed air pressure, describe qualitatively how the range of a projectile changes with the relative humidity. (c) When a thunderstorm is coming, usually the humidity is high and the air pressure is low. Do those conditions give an advantage or disadvantage to home-run hitters?

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The mean free path for helium at a certain temperature and pressure is 2.10 × 10 −7 m . The radius of a helium atom can be taken as 1.10 × 10 −11 m . What is the measure of the density of helium under those conditions (a) in molecules per cubic meter and (b) in moles per cubic meter?

a. 2.21 × 10 27 molecules/m 3 ; b. 3.67 × 10 3 mol/m 3

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The mean free path for methane at a temperature of 269 K and a pressure of 1.11 × 10 5 Pa is 4.81 × 10 −8 m . Find the effective radius r of the methane molecule.

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In the chapter on fluid mechanics, Bernoulli’s equation for the flow of incompressible fluids was explained in terms of changes affecting a small volume dV of fluid. Such volumes are a fundamental idea in the study of the flow of compressible fluids such as gases as well. For the equations of hydrodynamics to apply, the mean free path must be much less than the linear size of such a volume, a d V 1 / 3 . For air in the stratosphere at a temperature of 220 K and a pressure of 5.8 kPa, how big should a be for it to be 100 times the mean free path? Take the effective radius of air molecules to be 1.88 × 10 −11 m , which is roughly correct for N 2 .

8.2 mm

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Questions & Answers

determining dimensional correctness
PATRICK Reply
determine dimensional correctness of,T=2π√L/g
PATRICK
somebody help me answer the question above
PATRICK
calculate the heat flow per square meter through a mineral roll insulation 5cm thick if the temperature on the two surfaces are 30degree Celsius and 20 degree Celsius respectively. thermal conduction of mineral roll is 0.04
akuribire Reply
what are the elementary compositions of a cell?
jackson Reply
when a current pass through a material does the velocity varies
lovet Reply
what is spin entropy ?and disorder in ferromagnetic material
Nepal Reply
diagram of an hall effect sensor
Aweda Reply
if a magnetised wire having dipole moment M is bent in the form of arc subtending angle of 45°at centre,new magnetic moment is
Pravin Reply
is this book for preparing IIT or neet?
jyotirmayee Reply
is it possible to increase the temperature of a gas without adding heat to it?
gurpreet Reply
I'm not sure about it, but I think it's possible. If you add some form of energy to the system, it's a possibility. Also, if you change the pression or the volume of the system, you'll increase the kinetic energy of the system, increasing the gas temperature. I don't know if I'm correct.
playdoh
For example, if you get a syringe and close the tip(sealing the air inside), and start pumping the plunger, you'll notice that it starts getting hot. Again, I'm not sure if I am correct.
playdoh
you are right for example an adiabatic process changes all variables without external energy to yield a temperature change. (Search Otto cycle)
Brad
when a current pass through a material does the velocity varies
lovet
yes at adiabatic compression temperature increase
Nepal
how to draw a diagram of a triode
Ssempala Reply
whate is fckg diagrame?
Arzoodan
why do we use integration?
Monalisa Reply
To know surfaces below graphs.
Jan
To find a Primitive function. Primitive function: a function that is the origin of another
playdoh
yes
Dharmdev
what is laps rate
Dharmdev
Г=-dT/dZ that is simply defination
Arzoodan
what is z
Dharmdev
to find the area under a graph or to accumulate .e.g. sum of momentum over time is no etic energy.
Naod
Z is alt.,dZ altv difference
Arzoodan
what is the Elasticty
Heeran Reply
it is the property of the by virtue of it regains it's original shape after the removal of applied force (deforming force).
Prema
property of the material
Prema
which type of cable is suitable for patrol station wiring
Eric Reply
what is calorimeter
odionyenma Reply
heat measuring device
Suvransu
What is mean electric potential
Biren Reply
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
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