1.6 Mechanisms of heat transfer  (Page 13/27)

 Page 13 / 27

Putting a lid on a boiling pot greatly reduces the heat transfer necessary to keep it boiling. Explain why.

Your house will be empty for a while in cold weather, and you want to save energy and money. Should you turn the thermostat down to the lowest level that will protect the house from damage such as freezing pipes, or leave it at the normal temperature? (If you don’t like coming back to a cold house, imagine that a timer controls the heating system so the house will be warm when you get back.) Explain your answer.

Turn the thermostat down. To have the house at the normal temperature, the heating system must replace all the heat that was lost. For all three mechanisms of heat transfer, the greater the temperature difference between inside and outside, the more heat is lost and must be replaced. So the house should be at the lowest temperature that does not allow freezing damage.

You pour coffee into an unlidded cup, intending to drink it 5 minutes later. You can add cream when you pour the cup or right before you drink it. (The cream is at the same temperature either way. Assume that the cream and coffee come into thermal equilibrium with each other very quickly.) Which way will give you hotter coffee? What feature of this question is different from the previous one?

Broiling is a method of cooking by radiation, which produces somewhat different results from cooking by conduction or convection. A gas flame or electric heating element produces a very high temperature close to the food and above it. Why is radiation the dominant heat-transfer method in this situation?

Air is a good insulator, so there is little conduction, and the heated air rises, so there is little convection downward.

On a cold winter morning, why does the metal of a bike feel colder than the wood of a porch?

Problems

(a) Calculate the rate of heat conduction through house walls that are 13.0 cm thick and have an average thermal conductivity twice that of glass wool. Assume there are no windows or doors. The walls’ surface area is $120\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}$ and their inside surface is at $18.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , while their outside surface is at $5.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ . (b) How many 1-kW room heaters would be needed to balance the heat transfer due to conduction?

a. $1.01\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{W}$ ; b. One 1-kilowatt room heater is needed.

The rate of heat conduction out of a window on a winter day is rapid enough to chill the air next to it. To see just how rapidly the windows transfer heat by conduction, calculate the rate of conduction in watts through a $3.00{\text{-m}}^{2}$ window that is 0.634 cm thick (1/4 in.) if the temperatures of the inner and outer surfaces are $5.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ and $-10.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , respectively. (This rapid rate will not be maintained—the inner surface will cool, even to the point of frost formation.)

Calculate the rate of heat conduction out of the human body, assuming that the core internal temperature is $37.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , the skin temperature is $34.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , the thickness of the fatty tissues between the core and the skin averages 1.00 cm, and the surface area is $1.40\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}$ .

84.0 W

Suppose you stand with one foot on ceramic flooring and one foot on a wool carpet, making contact over an area of $80.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{cm}}^{2}$ with each foot. Both the ceramic and the carpet are 2.00 cm thick and are $10.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ on their bottom sides. At what rate must heat transfer occur from each foot to keep the top of the ceramic and carpet at $33.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ ?

what is thermodynamics
the study of heat an other form of energy.
John
what is colamb,s law.?
it is a low studied the force between 2 charges F=q.q\r.r
Mostafa
what is the formula of del in cylindrical, polar media
prove that the formula for the unknown resistor is Rx=R2 x R3 divided by R3,when Ig=0.
what is flux
Total number of field lines crossing the surface area
Kamru
Basically flux in general is amount of anything...In Electricity and Magnetism it is the total no..of electric field lines or Magnetic field lines passing normally through the suface
prince
what is temperature change
Celine
a bottle of soft drink was removed from refrigerator and after some time, it was observed that its temperature has increased by 15 degree Celsius, what is the temperature change in degree Fahrenheit and degree Celsius
Celine
process whereby the degree of hotness of a body (or medium) changes
Salim
Q=mcΔT
Salim
where The letter "Q" is the heat transferred in an exchange in calories, "m" is the mass of the substance being heated in grams, "c" is its specific heat capacity and the static value, and "ΔT" is its change in temperature in degrees Celsius to reflect the change in temperature.
Salim
what was the temperature of the soft drink when it was removed ?
Salim
15 degree Celsius
Celine
15 degree
Celine
ok I think is just conversion
Salim
15 degree Celsius to Fahrenheit
Salim
0 degree Celsius = 32 Fahrenheit
Salim
15 degree Celsius = (15×1.8)+32 =59 Fahrenheit
Salim
I dont understand
Celine
the question said you should convert 15 degree Celsius to Fahrenheit
Salim
To convert temperatures in degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply by 1.8 (or 9/5) and add 32.
Salim
what is d final ans for Fahrenheit and Celsius
Celine
it said what is temperature change in Fahrenheit and Celsius
Celine
the 15 is already in Celsius
Salim
So the final answer for Fahrenheit is 59
Salim
what is d final ans for Fahrenheit and Celsius
Celine
what are the effects of placing a dielectric between the plates of a capacitor
increase the capacitance.
Jorge
besides increasing the capacitance, is there any?
Bundi
mechanical stiffness and small size
Jorge
why for an ideal gas internal energy is directly proportional to thermodynamics temperature?
two charged particles are 8.45cm apart. They are moved and the force on each of them is found to have tripled. How far are they now?
what is flux
Bundi
Bundi, flux is the number of electric field crossing a surface area
Mubanga
you right
martin,F/F=(r×r)÷(r×r)
Mostafa
determining dimensional correctness
determine dimensional correctness of,T=2π√L/g
PATRICK
somebody help me answer the question above
PATRICK
d=dQ+w
calculate the heat flow per square meter through a mineral roll insulation 5cm thick if the temperature on the two surfaces are 30degree Celsius and 20 degree Celsius respectively. thermal conduction of mineral roll is 0.04
what are the elementary compositions of a cell?
poles, chemical
prabir
when a current pass through a material does the velocity varies
no.
prabir
what is spin entropy ?and disorder in ferromagnetic material
diagram of an hall effect sensor
if a magnetised wire having dipole moment M is bent in the form of arc subtending angle of 45°at centre,new magnetic moment is
prabir