# 1.6 Mechanisms of heat transfer  (Page 13/27)

 Page 13 / 27

Putting a lid on a boiling pot greatly reduces the heat transfer necessary to keep it boiling. Explain why.

Your house will be empty for a while in cold weather, and you want to save energy and money. Should you turn the thermostat down to the lowest level that will protect the house from damage such as freezing pipes, or leave it at the normal temperature? (If you don’t like coming back to a cold house, imagine that a timer controls the heating system so the house will be warm when you get back.) Explain your answer.

Turn the thermostat down. To have the house at the normal temperature, the heating system must replace all the heat that was lost. For all three mechanisms of heat transfer, the greater the temperature difference between inside and outside, the more heat is lost and must be replaced. So the house should be at the lowest temperature that does not allow freezing damage.

You pour coffee into an unlidded cup, intending to drink it 5 minutes later. You can add cream when you pour the cup or right before you drink it. (The cream is at the same temperature either way. Assume that the cream and coffee come into thermal equilibrium with each other very quickly.) Which way will give you hotter coffee? What feature of this question is different from the previous one?

Broiling is a method of cooking by radiation, which produces somewhat different results from cooking by conduction or convection. A gas flame or electric heating element produces a very high temperature close to the food and above it. Why is radiation the dominant heat-transfer method in this situation?

Air is a good insulator, so there is little conduction, and the heated air rises, so there is little convection downward.

On a cold winter morning, why does the metal of a bike feel colder than the wood of a porch?

## Problems

(a) Calculate the rate of heat conduction through house walls that are 13.0 cm thick and have an average thermal conductivity twice that of glass wool. Assume there are no windows or doors. The walls’ surface area is $120\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}$ and their inside surface is at $18.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , while their outside surface is at $5.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ . (b) How many 1-kW room heaters would be needed to balance the heat transfer due to conduction?

a. $1.01\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{W}$ ; b. One 1-kilowatt room heater is needed.

The rate of heat conduction out of a window on a winter day is rapid enough to chill the air next to it. To see just how rapidly the windows transfer heat by conduction, calculate the rate of conduction in watts through a $3.00{\text{-m}}^{2}$ window that is 0.634 cm thick (1/4 in.) if the temperatures of the inner and outer surfaces are $5.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ and $-10.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , respectively. (This rapid rate will not be maintained—the inner surface will cool, even to the point of frost formation.)

Calculate the rate of heat conduction out of the human body, assuming that the core internal temperature is $37.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , the skin temperature is $34.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , the thickness of the fatty tissues between the core and the skin averages 1.00 cm, and the surface area is $1.40\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}$ .

84.0 W

Suppose you stand with one foot on ceramic flooring and one foot on a wool carpet, making contact over an area of $80.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{cm}}^{2}$ with each foot. Both the ceramic and the carpet are 2.00 cm thick and are $10.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ on their bottom sides. At what rate must heat transfer occur from each foot to keep the top of the ceramic and carpet at $33.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ ?

what is calorimeter
heat measuring device
Suvransu
What is mean electric potential
Electric density formula
Int E•dA
Vineet
what is relation betweeen potential energy of a system and work done in bringing last chaege from infinity
Einstein and his general theory of relativity, a very nice concept,which revolutionize our modern world.
what's the theory of relativity?
Piyali
it related to universe time period
jyotirmayee
it is a theory in which time is taken as relative,for diff. motion of objects.
Antares
no !!!
jyotirmayee
it is E=mc'square
jyotirmayee
what is black hole?
jyotirmayee
E=mc^2 is just a reln which sums up everything dude
Antares
what does e=mc^2 stand for?explain
Piyali
m not dude
jyotirmayee
e for speed of light
jyotirmayee
c for speed of light
jyotirmayee
m for mass of object
jyotirmayee
black hole is a super massive object in space gravitation pull of which s so strong dt evn light cannot escape. John wheeler 1st detected it, n concept of it ws given by Einstein himself from his general theory of relativity. Basically v cn si 3 types of it super massive, interstellar n intermediate
Antares
which topic now u studying?
jyotirmayee
e defined? sorry it,s wrong
jyotirmayee
Why?
Arzoodan
how black holes r formed?
Piyali
e is not speed of light
jyotirmayee
black holes formed when the centre of very massive star collapsed itself
jyotirmayee
e is energy.
Antares
what do u mean by quantum mechanics?
jyotirmayee
in most of d cases black holes r formed by massive collapsed star or star system
Antares
sahoo u don't seem to understand relative physics, plz study that first.
Antares
exatly...
Arzoodan
Apollo is the name of a satellite !!!!!
jyotirmayee
quantum mechanics is d study of physics describing nature at d smallest level of energy of atoms n subatomic particles.
Antares
qm means explains about the microscopic particles..
KRANTHI
nope name of d sun god
Antares
why the mercury used in thermometers?
jyotirmayee
Ali brother ur exactly spelling is wrong,,,,,
jyotirmayee
why the colour of tube light white?
jyotirmayee
why the mouth became red colour ,,by the regular eating of leaf called ,,betel combining with areca?
jyotirmayee
all formula for calculate specific latent heat of any substance
hello
Nigar
Hi, your real Nigga...? Or this jock?
Arzoodan
real
Nigar
You from Pakistan or India?
Arzoodan
c'mon guys.. let's talk Physics.
Yoblaze
mass multiplied with latent heat of a substance
Yoblaze
Arzoodan
you both?
jyotirmayee
in which class?
jyotirmayee
physics is the only subject which underestimated chemistry ,,bio
jyotirmayee
how capacitor is made in inst?
Piyali
what is dipole moment
it is the product of electric charges and distance between the two charges
Shikhar
Arzoodan
mishra true thanks dia
Ssempala
product of separation of the poles, the rest shikhar got is right
brad is separation and distance ,are they different?
Ssempala
What is dielectric
its a type of medium. generally poor conductors. but their conductivity can be changed
vedanth
you just have to add impurities
vedanth
Thanks
Ssempala
grt
Ssempala
a material which behave as conductor
Shikhar
insulating material, energy level for electron transfer is very high e.g used to increase a magnetic field in a capacitor
What is the difference between specific heat capacity and heat capacity? Give the equations
presentation on power
relation between Celsius and Kelvin
0" degree Celsius=273kelvin
jyotirmayee
Newton's second laws is call with
what is mean by thermodynamics
it is study about temperature and it's equilibrium
thiru
Its the study of heat and its relation with others kind of energy
Antonio
state caulombs law clearly
show mathematically that an electron has the greater speed than the proton when they attract each other
show mathematically that an electron has the greater speed than the proton when they attract each other
srikanta
@ezra & srikanta; for electrons: a=ke^2/(mr^2) and for protons: a=kp^2/(mr^2)
Sikandar