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Figure shows the top view of a car and a tree. The car is to the left and the tree to the right. A rope is tied between them. It is stretched down at the centre. Each side makes an angle theta with the horizontal. An arrow labeled F perpendicular points straight down. Arrows from the car to the centre and from the tree to the centre are labeled T.
We can create a large tension in the chain—and potentially a big mess—by pushing on it perpendicular to its length, as shown.

Check Your Understanding One end of a 3.0-m rope is tied to a tree; the other end is tied to a car stuck in the mud. The motorist pulls sideways on the midpoint of the rope, displacing it a distance of 0.25 m. If he exerts a force of 200.0 N under these conditions, determine the force exerted on the car.

6.0 × 10 2 N

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In Applications of Newton’s Laws , we extend the discussion on tension in a cable to include cases in which the angles shown are not equal.

Friction

Friction is a resistive force opposing motion or its tendency. Imagine an object at rest on a horizontal surface. The net force acting on the object must be zero, leading to equality of the weight and the normal force, which act in opposite directions. If the surface is tilted, the normal force balances the component of the weight perpendicular to the surface. If the object does not slide downward, the component of the weight parallel to the inclined plane is balanced by friction. Friction is discussed in greater detail in the next chapter.

Spring force

A spring is a special medium with a specific atomic structure that has the ability to restore its shape, if deformed. To restore its shape, a spring exerts a restoring force that is proportional to and in the opposite direction in which it is stretched or compressed. This is the statement of a law known as Hooke’s law, which has the mathematical form

F = k x .

The constant of proportionality k is a measure of the spring’s stiffness. The line of action of this force is parallel to the spring axis, and the sense of the force is in the opposite direction of the displacement vector ( [link] ). The displacement must be measured from the relaxed position; x = 0 when the spring is relaxed.

Figure a shows a spring. It is fixed to a wall on the left and a mass is attached to it on the right. An arrow points right. It is labeled F subscript restore is equal to minus k delta x 1. Figure b shows the spring compressed. An arrow points left and is labeled delta x1. Figure c shows the spring stretched to the right. An arrow pointing right is labeled delta x2. An arrow pointing left is labeled F subscript restore equal to minus k delta x2.
A spring exerts its force proportional to a displacement, whether it is compressed or stretched. (a) The spring is in a relaxed position and exerts no force on the block. (b) The spring is compressed by displacement Δ x 1 of the object and exerts restoring force k Δ x 1 . (c) The spring is stretched by displacement Δ x 2 of the object and exerts restoring force k Δ x 2 .

Real forces and inertial frames

There is another distinction among forces: Some forces are real, whereas others are not. Real forces have some physical origin, such as a gravitational pull. In contrast, fictitious forces arise simply because an observer is in an accelerating or noninertial frame of reference, such as one that rotates (like a merry-go-round) or undergoes linear acceleration (like a car slowing down). For example, if a satellite is heading due north above Earth’s Northern Hemisphere, then to an observer on Earth, it will appear to experience a force to the west that has no physical origin. Instead, Earth is rotating toward the east and moves east under the satellite. In Earth’s frame, this looks like a westward force on the satellite, or it can be interpreted as a violation of Newton’s first law (the law of inertia). We can identify a fictitious force by asking the question, “What is the reaction force?” If we cannot name the reaction force, then the force we are considering is fictitious. In the example of the satellite, the reaction force would have to be an eastward force on Earth. Recall that an inertial frame of reference is one in which all forces are real and, equivalently, one in which Newton’s laws have the simple forms given in this chapter.

Questions & Answers

A force F is needed to break a copper wire having radius R. The force needed to break a copper wire of radius 2R will be
Lalit Reply
2F
Jacob
The difference between vector and scaler quantity
Yakubu Reply
vector has both magnitude & direction but scalar has only magnitude
Manash
my marunong ba dto mag prove ng geometry
ron
how do I find resultant of four forces at a point
Inusah
use the socatoa rule
kingsley
draw force diagram, then work out the direction of force.
Rongfang
In a closed system of forces... Summation of forces in any direction or plane is zero... Resolve if there is a need to then add forces in a particular plane or direction.. Say the x direction... Equate it tk zero
Jacob
define moment of inertia
Manoj Reply
what is Euler s theorem
Manoj Reply
what is thermocouple?
Manoj Reply
joining of two wire of different material forming two junctions. If one is hot and another is cold the it will produce emf...
Badri
joining of two metal of different materials to form a junction in one is hot & another is cold
Manash
define dimensional analysis
Dennis Reply
mathematical derivation?
Hira
explain what Newtonian mechanics is.
Elizabeth Reply
a system of mechanics based of Newton laws motion this is easy difenation of mean...
Arzoodan
what is the meaning of single term,mechanics?
jyotirmayee
mechanics is the science related to the behavior of physical bodies when some external force is applied to them
Lalita
SO ASK What is Newtonian mechanics in physics? Newtonian physics, also calledNewtonian or classical mechanics, is the description of mechanical events—those that involve forces acting on matter—using the laws of motion and gravitation formulated in the late seventeenth century by English physicist
Suleiman
can any one send me the best reference book for physics?
Prema
concept of physics by HC verma, Fundamentals of Physics, university of physics
Bhaskar
tq u.
Prema
these are the best physics books one can fond both theory and applications.
Bhaskar
can any one suggest best book for maths with lot of Tricks?
Vivek
what is the water height in barometer?
SUNEELL
13.5*76 cm. because Mercury is 13.5 times dense than Mercury
LOVE
water is 13.5 times dense than the Mercury
LOVE
plz tell me frnds the best reference book for physics along with the names of authors.
Prema
i recomended the reference book for physics from library University of Dublin or library Trinity college
Arzoodan
A little help here... . 1. Newton's laws of Motion, are they applicable to motions of all speeds? 2.state the speeds which are applicable to Newtons laws of Motion
Derek
mechanics which follows Newtons law
Manash
The definition of axial and polar vector .
Arpita
polar vector which have a starting point or pt. of applications is,force,displacement
jyotirmayee
axial vector represent rotational effect and act along the axis of rotation b
jyotirmayee
explain the rule of free body diagram
Mithu Reply
The polar coordinates of a point are 4π/3 and 5.50m. What are its Cartesian coordinates?
Tiam Reply
application of elasticity
Nangbun Reply
good
Anwar
a boy move with a velocity of 5m/s in 4s. What is the distance covered by the boy?
anthony Reply
What is the time required for the sun to reach the earth?
anthony
24th hr's, your question is amazing joke 😂
Arzoodan
velocity 20 m, s
Ahmed
the sun shines always and the earth rotates so the question should specify a place on earth and that will be 24hrs
Opoku
20m
Gabriel
good nice work
Anwar
20m
Evelyn
why 20?.
Arzoodan
v =distance/time so make distance the subject from the equation
Evelyn
20m
Olaide
exatly
Arzoodan
what is differemce between principles and laws
maaz Reply
plz
Anwar
how can a 50W light bulb use more energy than a 1000W oven?
Opoku Reply
That depends on how much time we use them
Phrangsngi
Define vector law of addition
Pawan Reply
It states that, " If two vectors are represented in magnitude and direction by the two sides of a triangle, then their resultant is represented in magnitude and direction by the third side of the triangl " .
Nabin
thanks yaar
Pawan
And it's formula
Pawan
vectors addition is a geometric addition
Manash
plank constant is what
chin Reply
plank constant is a phisical constant that the central quantum
Arzoodan
links energy of a photon to it's wave length
Brad
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12031/1.5
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