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Summary

  • Laminar flow is characterized by smooth flow of the fluid in layers that do not mix.
  • Turbulence is characterized by eddies and swirls that mix layers of fluid together.
  • Fluid viscosity η is due to friction within a fluid.
  • Flow is proportional to pressure difference and inversely proportional to resistance:
    Q = p 2 p 1 R .
  • The pressure drop caused by flow and resistance is given by p 2 p 1 = R Q .
  • The Reynolds number N R can reveal whether flow is laminar or turbulent. It is N R = 2 ρ v r η .
  • For N R below about 2000, flow is laminar. For N R above about 3000, flow is turbulent. For values of N R between 2000 and 3000, it may be either or both.

Key equations

Density of a sample at constant density ρ = m V
Pressure p = F A
Pressure at a depth h in a fluid of constant density p = p 0 + ρ g h
Change of pressure with height in a
constant-density fluid
d p d y = ρ g
Absolute pressure p abs = p g + p atm
Pascal’s principle F 1 A 1 = F 2 A 2
Volume flow rate Q = d V d t
Continuity equation (constant density) A 1 v 1 = A 2 v 2
Continuity equation (general form) ρ 1 A 1 v 1 = ρ 2 A 2 v 2
Bernoulli’s equation p + 1 2 ρ v 2 + ρ g y = constant
Viscosity η = F L v A
Poiseuille’s law for resistance R = 8 η l π r 4
Poiseuille’s law Q = ( p 2 p 1 ) π r 4 8 η l

Conceptual questions

Explain why the viscosity of a liquid decreases with temperature, that is, how might an increase in temperature reduce the effects of cohesive forces in a liquid? Also explain why the viscosity of a gas increases with temperature, that is, how does increased gas temperature create more collisions between atoms and molecules?

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When paddling a canoe upstream, it is wisest to travel as near to the shore as possible. When canoeing downstream, it is generally better to stay near the middle. Explain why.

The water in the center of the stream is moving faster than the water near the shore due to resistance between the water and the shore and between the layers of fluid. There is also probably more turbulence near the shore, which will also slow the water down. When paddling up stream, the water pushes against the canoe, so it is better to stay near the shore to minimize the force pushing against the canoe. When moving downstream, the water pushes the canoe, increasing its velocity, so it is better to stay in the middle of the stream to maximize this effect.

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Plumbing usually includes air-filled tubes near water faucets (see the following figure). Explain why they are needed and how they work.

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Doppler ultrasound can be used to measure the speed of blood in the body. If there is a partial constriction of an artery, where would you expect blood speed to be greatest: at or after the constriction? What are the two distinct causes of higher resistance in the constriction?

You would expect the speed to be slower after the obstruction. Resistance is increased due to the reduction in size of the opening, and turbulence will be created because of the obstruction, both of which will clause the fluid to slow down.

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Sink drains often have a device such as that shown below to help speed the flow of water. How does this work?

Figure is the schematic drawing of device that aligns the water into streams. Device has a circular shape and is separated into four segments.
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Problems

(a) Calculate the retarding force due to the viscosity of the air layer between a cart and a level air track given the following information: air temperature is 20 °C , the cart is moving at 0.400 m/s, its surface area is 2.50 × 10 −2 m 2 , and the thickness of the air layer is 6.00 × 10 −5 m . (b) What is the ratio of this force to the weight of the 0.300-kg cart?

a. 3.02 × 10 3 N ; b. 1.03 × 10 3

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Questions & Answers

show whether or not the expression v^2= u^2 sin^2 d- 2gs is dimensionally constant
Oyetayo Reply
the period T of a pendulum depends on its mass m, length l and acceleration due to gravity g. using dimensional analysis, derive for T.
Oyetayo
what is physics
Satyabrata Reply
Physics is the tool humans use to understand the properties characteristics and interactions of where they live - the universe. Thus making laws and theories about the universe in a mathematical way derived from empirical results yielded in tons of experiments.
Jomari
This tool, the physics, also enhances their way of thinking. Evolving integrating and enhancing their critical logical rational and philosophical thinking since the greeks fired the first neurons of physics.
Jomari
nice
Satyabrata
Physics is also under the category of Physical Science which deals with the behavior and properties of physical quantities around us.
Angelo
Physical Science is under the category of Physics*... I prefer the most is Theoretical Physics where it deals with the philosophical view of our world.
Jomari
what is unit
Satyabrata Reply
Metric unit
Arzoodan
A unit is what comes after a number that gives a precise detail on what the number means. For example, 10 kilograms, 10 is the number while "kilogram" is the unit.
Angelo
there are also different types of units, but metric is the most widely used. It is called the SI system. Please research this on google.
Angelo
Unit? Bahay yon
Jomari
How did you get the value as Dcd=0.2Dab
ebewele Reply
Why as Dcd=0.2Dab? where are you got this formula?...
Arzoodan
since the distance Dcd=1.2 and the distance Dab=6.0 the ratio 1.2/6.0 gives the equation Dcd=0.2Dab
sunday
Well done.
Arzoodan
how do we add or deduct zero errors from result gotten using vernier calliper?
Aina Reply
how can i understand if the function are odd or even or neither odd or even
hamzaani
I don't get... do you mean positive or negative@hamzaani
Aina
Verner calliper is an old calculator
Antonio
Function is even if f(-x) =f(x)
Antonio
Function is odd if f(-x) = - f(x)
Antonio
what physical phenomena is resonance?
amrit Reply
is there any resonance in weight?
amrit
Resonance is due to vibrations and waves
Antonio
wait there is a chat here
dare
what is the difference between average velocity and magnitude of displacement
ibrahim
how velocity change with time
ibrahim
average velocity can be zero positive negative but magnitude of displacement is positive
amrit
if there is different displacement in same interval of time
amrit
Displacement can be zero, if you came back
Antonio
Displacement its a [L]
Antonio
Velocity its a vector
Antonio
Speed its the magnitude of velocity
Antonio
[Vt2-Vt1]/[t2-t1] = average velocity,another vector
Antonio
Distance, that and only that can't be negative, and is not a vector
Antonio
Distance its a metrical characteristic of the euclidean space
Antonio
Velocity change in time due a force acting (an acceleration)
Antonio
the change in velocity can be found using conservation of energy if the displacement is known
Jose
BEFORE = AFTER
Jose
kinetic energy + potential energy is equal to the kinetic energy after
Jose
the potential energy can be described as made times displacement times acceleration. I.e the work done on the object
Jose
mass*
Jose
from there make the final velocity the subject and solve
Jose
If its a conservative field
Antonio
So, no frictions in this case
Antonio
right
Jose
and if still conservative but force is in play then simply include work done by friction
Jose
Is not simple, is a very unknown force
Antonio
the vibration of a particle due to vibration of a similar particle close to it.
Aina
No, not so simple
Antonio
Frequency is involved
Antonio
mechanical wave?
Aina
All kind of waves, even in the sea
Antonio
will the LCR circut pure inductive if applied frequency becomes more than the natural frequency of AC circut? if yes , why?
Muskan Reply
LCR pure inductive? Is an nonsense
Antonio
what is photon
Elijah Reply
Photon is the effect of the Maxwell equations, it's the graviton of the electromagnetic field
Antonio
a particle representing a quantum of light or other electromagnetic radiation. A photon carries energy proportional to the radiation frequency but has zero rest mass.
Areej
Quantum it's not exact, its the elementary particle of electromagnetic field. Its not well clear if quantum theory its so, or if it's classical mechanics improved
Antonio
A photon is first and foremost a particle. And hence obeys Newtonian Mechanics. It is what visible light and other electromagnetic waves is made up of.
eli
No a photon has speed of light, and no mass, so is not Newtonian Mechanics
Antonio
photon is both a particle and a wave (It is the property called particle-wave duality). It is nearly massless, and travels at speed c. It interacts with and carries electromagnetic force.
Angelo
what are free vectors
sunday Reply
a vector hows point of action doesn't static . then vector can move bodily from one point to another point located on its original tragectory.
Anuj
A free vector its an element of an Affine Space
Antonio
Clay Matthews, a linebacker for the Green Bay Packers, can reach a speed of 10.0 m/s. At the start of a play, Matthews runs downfield at 45° with respect to the 50-yard line and covers 8.0 m in 1 s. He then runs straight down the field at 90° with respect to the 50-yard line for 12 m, with an elapsed time of 1.2 s. (a) What is Matthews’ final displacement from the start of the play? (b) What is his average velocity?
Macy Reply
Clay Matthews, a linebacker for the Green Bay Packers, can reach a speed of 10.0 m/s. At the start of a play, Matthews runs downfield at 45° with respect to the 50-yard line and covers 8.0 m in 1 s. He then runs straight down the field at 90° with respect to the 50-yard line for 12 m, with an elap
ibrahim
Very easy man
Antonio
how to find time moved by a mass on a spring
CHIDERA Reply
Maybe you mean frequency
Antonio
why hot soup is more tastier than cold soup?
Hamisi Reply
energy is involved
michael
hot soup is more energetic and thus enhances the flavor than a cold one.
Angelo
Its not Physics... Firstly, It falls under Anatomy. Your taste buds are the one to be blame not its coldness or hotness. Secondly, it depends on how the soup is done. Different soups possess different flavors and savors. If its on Physics, coldness of the soup will just bore you and if its hot...
Jomari
what is the importance of banking road in the circular path
Hamisi Reply
the coefficient of static friction of the tires and the pavement becomes less important because the angle of the banked curve helps friction to prevent slipping
Jose
an insect is at the end of the ring and the ring is rotating at an angular speed 'w' and it reaches to centre find its angular speed.
Bharani Reply
Angular speed is the rate at which an object changes its angle (measured) in radians, in a given time period. Angular speed has a magnitude (a value) only.  v represents the linear speed of a rotating object, r its radius, and ω its angular velocity in units of radians per unit of time, then v = rω
Lady
Angular speed = (final angle) - (initial angle) / time = change in position/time. ω = θ /t. ω = angular speed in radians/sec.
Lady
a boy through a ball with minimum velocity of 60 m/s and the ball reach ground 300 metre from him calculate angle of inclination
Emmanuel Reply
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12031/1.5
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