<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
A photograph of geese flying in a V formation.
Geese fly in a V formation during their long migratory travels. This shape reduces drag and energy consumption for individual birds, and also allows them a better way to communicate. (credit: “Julo”/Wikimedia Commons)

In lecture demonstrations, we do measurements of the drag force on different objects. The objects are placed in a uniform airstream created by a fan. Calculate the Reynolds number and the drag coefficient.

The calculus of velocity-dependent frictional forces

When a body slides across a surface, the frictional force on it is approximately constant and given by μ k N . Unfortunately, the frictional force on a body moving through a liquid or a gas does not behave so simply. This drag force is generally a complicated function of the body’s velocity. However, for a body moving in a straight line at moderate speeds through a liquid such as water, the frictional force can often be approximated by

f R = b v ,

where b is a constant whose value depends on the dimensions and shape of the body and the properties of the liquid, and v is the velocity of the body. Two situations for which the frictional force can be represented this equation are a motorboat moving through water and a small object falling slowly through a liquid.

Let’s consider the object falling through a liquid. The free-body diagram of this object with the positive direction downward is shown in [link] . Newton’s second law in the vertical direction gives the differential equation

m g b v = m d v d t ,

where we have written the acceleration as d v / d t . As v increases, the frictional force – bv increases until it matches mg . At this point, there is no acceleration and the velocity remains constant at the terminal velocity v T . From the previous equation,

m g b v T = 0 ,

so

v T = m g b .
The free body diagram shows forces m times vector g pointing vertically down and b times vector v pointing vertically up. The velocity, vector v, is vertically down. The positive y direction is also vertically down.
Free-body diagram of an object falling through a resistive medium.

We can find the object’s velocity by integrating the differential equation for v . First, we rearrange terms in this equation to obtain

d v g ( b / m ) v = d t .

Assuming that v = 0 at t = 0 , integration of this equation yields

0 v d v g ( b / m ) v = 0 t d t ,

or

m b ln ( g b m v ) | 0 v = t | 0 t ,

where v ' and t ' are dummy variables of integration. With the limits given, we find

m b [ ln ( g b m v ) ln g ] = t .

Since ln A ln B = ln ( A / B ) , and ln ( A / B ) = x implies e x = A / B , we obtain

g ( b v / m ) g = e b t / m ,

and

v = m g b ( 1 e b t / m ) .

Notice that as t , v m g / b = v T , which is the terminal velocity.

The position at any time may be found by integrating the equation for v . With v = d y / d t ,

d y = m g b ( 1 e b t / m ) d t .

Assuming y = 0 when t = 0 ,

0 y d y = m g b 0 t ( 1 e b t ' / m ) d t ,

which integrates to

y = m g b t + m 2 g b 2 ( e b t / m 1 ) .

Effect of the resistive force on a motorboat

A motorboat is moving across a lake at a speed v 0 when its motor suddenly freezes up and stops. The boat then slows down under the frictional force f R = b v . (a) What are the velocity and position of the boat as functions of time? (b) If the boat slows down from 4.0 to 1.0 m/s in 10 s, how far does it travel before stopping?

Solution

  1. With the motor stopped, the only horizontal force on the boat is f R = b v , so from Newton’s second law,
    m d v d t = b v ,

    which we can write as
    d v v = b m d t .

    Integrating this equation between the time zero when the velocity is v 0 and the time t when the velocity is v , we have
    0 v d v v = b m 0 t d t .

    Thus,
    ln v v 0 = b m t ,

    which, since ln A = x implies e x = A , we can write this as
    v = v 0 e b t / m .

    Now from the definition of velocity,
    d x d t = v 0 e b t / m ,

    so we have
    d x = v 0 e b t / m d t .

    With the initial position zero, we have
    0 x d x ' = v 0 0 t e b t ' / m d t ' ,

    and
    x = m v 0 b e b t ' / m | 0 t = m v 0 b ( 1 e b t / m ) .

    As time increases, e b t / m 0 , and the position of the boat approaches a limiting value
    x max = m v 0 b .

    Although this tells us that the boat takes an infinite amount of time to reach x max , the boat effectively stops after a reasonable time. For example, at t = 10 m / b , we have
    v = v 0 e −10 4.5 × 10 −5 v 0 ,

    whereas we also have
    x = x max ( 1 e −10 ) 0.99995 x max .

    Therefore, the boat’s velocity and position have essentially reached their final values.
  2. With v 0 = 4.0 m/s and v = 1.0 m/s, we have 1.0 m/s = ( 4.0 m/s ) e ( b / m ) ( 10 s ) , so
    ln 0.25 = ln 4.0 = b m ( 10 s ) ,

    and
    b m = 1 10 ln 4.0 s -1 = 0.14 s -1 .

    Now the boat’s limiting position is
    x max = m v 0 b = 4.0 m/s 0.14 s −1 = 29 m .

Questions & Answers

how can I convert mile to meter per hour
Folorunsho Reply
1 mile * 1609m
Boon
hey can someone show me how to solve the - "Hanging from the ceiling over a baby bed ...." question
Shrushti Reply
i wanted to know the steps
Shrushti
sorry shrushti..
Rashid
which question please write it briefly
Asutosh
Olympus Mons on Mars is the largest volcano in the solar system, at a height of 25 km and with a radius of 312 km. If you are standing on the summit, with what initial velocity would you have to fire a projectile from a cannon horizontally to clear the volcano and land on the surface of Mars? Note that Mars has an acceleration of gravity of 3.7 m/s2 .
Eloisa Reply
what is summit
Asutosh
highest point on earth
Ngeh
पृथवी को इसके अक्ष पर कितने कोणीय चाल से घूमाऐ कि भूमधय पे आदमी का भार इसके वासतविक भार से 3/5अधिक हो
Vasudev Reply
best
Murari
At a post office, a parcel that is a 20.0-kg box slides down a ramp inclined at 30.0° 30.0° with the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and plane is 0.0300. (a) Find the acceleration of the box. (b) Find the velocity of the box as it reaches the end of the plane, if the length of the plane is 2 m and the box starts at rest.
Kaitlin Reply
As an IT student must I take physics seriously?
Akaare Reply
yh
Bernice
hii
Raja
IT came from physics and maths so I don't see why you wouldn't
Brad
conditions for pure rolling
Md
the time period of jupiter is 11.6 yrs. how far is jupiter from the sun. distance of earth from rhe sun is 1.5*10 to the power 11 meter.
Abu Reply
lists 5 drawing instruments and their uses
Micahlolo Reply
that is a question you can find on Google, anyway of top of my head, compass, ruler, protractor, try square, triangles.
Rongfang
A force F is needed to break a copper wire having radius R. The force needed to break a copper wire of radius 2R will be
Lalit Reply
2F
Jacob
it will be doubled
kelvin
double
Devesh
The difference between vector and scaler quantity
Yakubu Reply
vector has both magnitude & direction but scalar has only magnitude
Manash
my marunong ba dto mag prove ng geometry
ron
how do I find resultant of four forces at a point
Inusah
use the socatoa rule
kingsley
draw force diagram, then work out the direction of force.
Rongfang
In a closed system of forces... Summation of forces in any direction or plane is zero... Resolve if there is a need to then add forces in a particular plane or direction.. Say the x direction... Equate it tk zero
Jacob
define moment of inertia
Manoj Reply
it is the tendency for a body to continue in motion if is or continue to be at rest if it is.
prince
what is Euler s theorem
Manoj Reply
what is thermocouple?
Manoj Reply
joining of two wire of different material forming two junctions. If one is hot and another is cold the it will produce emf...
Badri
joining of two metal of different materials to form a junction in one is hot & another is cold
Manash
define dimensional analysis
Dennis Reply
mathematical derivation?
Hira
explain what Newtonian mechanics is.
Elizabeth Reply
a system of mechanics based of Newton laws motion this is easy difenation of mean...
Arzoodan
what is the meaning of single term,mechanics?
jyotirmayee
mechanics is the science related to the behavior of physical bodies when some external force is applied to them
Lalita
SO ASK What is Newtonian mechanics in physics? Newtonian physics, also calledNewtonian or classical mechanics, is the description of mechanical events—those that involve forces acting on matter—using the laws of motion and gravitation formulated in the late seventeenth century by English physicist
Suleiman
can any one send me the best reference book for physics?
Prema
concept of physics by HC verma, Fundamentals of Physics, university of physics
Bhaskar
tq u.
Prema
these are the best physics books one can fond both theory and applications.
Bhaskar
can any one suggest best book for maths with lot of Tricks?
Vivek
what is the water height in barometer?
SUNEELL
13.5*76 cm. because Mercury is 13.5 times dense than Mercury
LOVE
water is 13.5 times dense than the Mercury
LOVE
plz tell me frnds the best reference book for physics along with the names of authors.
Prema
i recomended the reference book for physics from library University of Dublin or library Trinity college
Arzoodan
A little help here... . 1. Newton's laws of Motion, are they applicable to motions of all speeds? 2.state the speeds which are applicable to Newtons laws of Motion
Derek
mechanics which follows Newtons law
Manash
The definition of axial and polar vector .
Arpita
polar vector which have a starting point or pt. of applications is,force,displacement
jyotirmayee
axial vector represent rotational effect and act along the axis of rotation b
jyotirmayee
prove Newton's first law of motion
prince
Hello frnds what is physics in general?
Ngeh
A block of mass m is attached to a spring with spring constant k and free to slide along a horizontal frictionless surface. At t=0, the block spring system is stretched on amount x>0 from the equilibrium position and is released from rest Vx = 0 What is the period of oscillation of the block? What
Ella
What is the velocity of the block when it first comes back to the equilibrium position?
Ella
Practice Key Terms 2

Get the best University physics vol... course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12031/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'University physics volume 1' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask