The problem contains data on the various legs of Jill’s trip, so it would be useful to make a table of the physical quantities. We are given position and time in the wording of the problem so we can calculate the displacements and the elapsed time. We take east to be the positive direction. From this information we can find the total displacement and average velocity. Jill’s home is the starting point
${x}_{0}$ . The following table gives Jill’s time and position in the first two columns, and the displacements are calculated in the third column.
The magnitude of the total displacement is
$\left|\mathrm{-0.75}\right|\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{km}=0.75\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{km}$ .
The total distance traveled (sum of magnitudes of individual displacements) is
${x}_{\text{Total}}={\displaystyle \sum \left|\text{\Delta}{x}_{\text{i}}\right|=0.5+0.5+1.0+1.75}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{km}=3.75\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{km}$ .
We can graph Jill’s position versus time as a useful aid to see the motion; the graph is shown in
[link] .
Significance
Jill’s total displacement is −0.75 km, which means at the end of her trip she ends up
$0.75\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{km}$ due west of her home. The average velocity means if someone was to walk due west at
$0.013$ km/min starting at the same time Jill left her home, they both would arrive at the final stopping point at the same time. Note that if Jill were to end her trip at her house, her total displacement would be zero, as well as her average velocity. The total distance traveled during the 58 minutes of elapsed time for her trip is 3.75 km.
Check Your Understanding A cyclist rides 3 km west and then turns around and rides 2 km east. (a) What is his displacement? (b) What is the distance traveled? (c) What is the magnitude of his displacement?
(a) The rider’s displacement is
$\text{\Delta}x={x}_{\text{f}}-{x}_{0}=\mathrm{-1}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{km}$ . (The displacement is negative because we take east to be positive and west to be negative.) (b) The distance traveled is 3 km + 2 km = 5 km. (c) The magnitude of the displacement is 1 km.
Kinematics is the description of motion without considering its causes. In this chapter, it is limited to motion along a straight line, called one-dimensional motion.
Displacement is the change in position of an object. The SI unit for displacement is the meter. Displacement has direction as well as magnitude.
Distance traveled is the total length of the path traveled between two positions.
Time is measured in terms of change. The time between two position points
${x}_{1}$ and
${x}_{2}$ is
$\text{\Delta}t={t}_{2}-{t}_{1}$ . Elapsed time for an event is
$\text{\Delta}t={t}_{\text{f}}-{t}_{0}$ , where
${t}_{\text{f}}$ is the final time and
${t}_{0}$ is the initial time. The initial time is often taken to be zero.
Average velocity
$\stackrel{\text{\u2013}}{v}$ is defined as displacement divided by elapsed time. If
${x}_{1},{t}_{1}$ and
${x}_{2},{t}_{2}$ are two position time points, the average velocity between these points is
Give an example in which there are clear distinctions among distance traveled, displacement, and magnitude of displacement. Identify each quantity in your example specifically.
You drive your car into town and return to drive past your house to a friend’s house.
Under what circumstances does distance traveled equal magnitude of displacement? What is the only case in which magnitude of displacement and displacement are exactly the same?
Bacteria move back and forth using their flagella (structures that look like little tails). Speeds of up to 50 μm/s (50 × 10
^{−6} m/s) have been observed. The total distance traveled by a bacterium is large for its size, whereas its displacement is small. Why is this?
If the bacteria are moving back and forth, then the displacements are canceling each other and the final displacement is small.
Consider a coordinate system in which the positive
x axis is directed upward vertically. What are the positions of a particle (a) 5.0 m directly above the origin and (b) 2.0 m below the origin?
A car is 2.0 km west of a traffic light at
t = 0 and 5.0 km east of the light at
t = 6.0 min. Assume the origin of the coordinate system is the light and the positive
x direction is eastward. (a) What are the car’s position vectors at these two times? (b) What is the car’s displacement between 0 min and 6.0 min?
a.
${\overrightarrow{x}}_{1}=(\mathrm{-2.0}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m})\widehat{i}$ ,
${\overrightarrow{x}}_{2}=(5.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m})\widehat{i}$ ; b. 7.0 m east
The Shanghai maglev train connects Longyang Road to Pudong International Airport, a distance of 30 km. The journey takes 8 minutes on average. What is the maglev train’s average velocity?
The position of a particle moving along the
x -axis is given by
$x(t)=4.0-2.0t$ m. (a) At what time does the particle cross the origin? (b) What is the displacement of the particle between
$\text{t}=3.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{s}$ and
$\text{t}=6.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{s}?$
a.
$t=2.0$ s; b.
$x(6.0)-x(3.0)=\mathrm{-8.0}-(\mathrm{-2.0})=\mathrm{-6.0}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m}$
A cyclist rides 8.0 km east for 20 minutes, then he turns and heads west for 8 minutes and 3.2 km. Finally, he rides east for 16 km, which takes 40 minutes. (a) What is the final displacement of the cyclist? (b) What is his average velocity?
On February 15, 2013, a superbolide meteor (brighter than the Sun) entered Earth’s atmosphere over Chelyabinsk, Russia, and exploded at an altitude of 23.5 km. Eyewitnesses could feel the intense heat from the fireball, and the blast wave from the explosion blew out windows in buildings. The blast wave took approximately 2 minutes 30 seconds to reach ground level. (a) What was the average velocity of the blast wave? b) Compare this with the speed of sound, which is 343 m/s at sea level.
a. 150.0 s,
$\stackrel{\text{\u2013}}{v}=156.7\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m/s}$ ; b. 45.7% the speed of sound at sea level
it wasn't discovered , it was made.and the person who made it was dmitri mendeleev. dobreinier and newland gave their laws before dmitri related periodic table but wasn't successful in their work
Ritik
Nope, numerous number of scientist had actually contributed in the making of periodic table. Dmitri Mendeleev succeeded making all the elements into the right order in accordance to their atomic number.
it refers to the sun and all heavenly bodies revolving around it.
Danie
excatly...for sure
Arzoodan
in addition to Danie's, a solar system is a collection of planets and their moons, asteroids, and other objects bound together by the Star's gravitational force directly or indirectly.
study fibre optics. .you will get total internal reflection
Siddhansh
wha
jyotirmayee
what is Lorentz force?
jyotirmayee
a ray of light traveling at an angle of incidence greater than critical angle from denser to rarer medium is totally reflected back into the denser medium is called total internal reflaction
you see the reflexion of the "blue" sky in the water
Mehdi
somewhere sea water turns green why?
Piyali
never seen bro... are u sure ?
Mehdi
ur answer was correct but due to the presence of phytoplankton color can be changed near the shore
Piyali
waaaww... you re awesome
Mehdi
because of the reflection of the sky
Friday
rays coming from the sun consist of all 7 colours ie.VIBGYOR. when the ray strikes surface of water,all colors gets absorbed by it except blue which gets reflected by it.so we find the sea water appearing bluish
Ritik
how can someone identify sea water from rain water
Oniyide
i think it's not possible as because rainwater consists of water from all kind of water bodies ie.lakes,seas etc but u can predict if u have a sea nearby ur home or city
actually if u wanted whole book solution then u should buy the solution book
jyotirmayee
from where
Nirupam
where do u live ,,,,,if u live in Delhi then at bellsarayeiii or from stationary store ,,,,chatarpurrr ,,,,,there is a popular books store,,,,,u have to buy from there