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  • Define food irradiation low dose, and free radicals.

Ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize medical supplies, such as bandages, and consumer products, such as tampons. Worldwide, it is also used to irradiate food, an application that promises to grow in the future. Food irradiation is the treatment of food with ionizing radiation. It is used to reduce pest infestation and to delay spoilage and prevent illness caused by microorganisms. Food irradiation is controversial. Proponents see it as superior to pasteurization, preservatives, and insecticides, supplanting dangerous chemicals with a more effective process. Opponents see its safety as unproven, perhaps leaving worse toxic residues as well as presenting an environmental hazard at treatment sites. In developing countries, food irradiation might increase crop production by 25.0% or more, and reduce food spoilage by a similar amount. It is used chiefly to treat spices and some fruits, and in some countries, red meat, poultry, and vegetables. Over 40 countries have approved food irradiation at some level.

Food irradiation exposes food to large doses of γ size 12{γ} {} rays, x-rays, or electrons. These photons and electrons induce no nuclear reactions and thus create no residual radioactivity . (Some forms of ionizing radiation, such as neutron irradiation, cause residual radioactivity. These are not used for food irradiation.) The γ size 12{γ} {} source is usually 60 Co or 137 Cs , the latter isotope being a major by-product of nuclear power. Cobalt-60 γ size 12{γ} {} rays average 1.25 MeV, while those of 137 Cs are 0.67 MeV and are less penetrating. X-rays used for food irradiation are created with voltages of up to 5 million volts and, thus, have photon energies up to 5 MeV. Electrons used for food irradiation are accelerated to energies up to 10 MeV. The higher the energy per particle, the more penetrating the radiation is and the more ionization it can create. [link] shows a typical γ size 12{γ} {} -irradiation plant.

Figure shows a food irradiation plant with conveyor system that moves the food packages through the irradiation room. The radiation source rack is lowered into a deep storage pool of water.
A food irradiation plant has a conveyor system to pass items through an intense radiation field behind thick shielding walls. The γ size 12{γ} {} source is lowered into a deep pool of water for safe storage when not in use. Exposure times of up to an hour expose food to doses up to 10 4 Gy size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{4} } `"Gy"} {} .

Owing to the fact that food irradiation seeks to destroy organisms such as insects and bacteria, much larger doses than those fatal to humans must be applied. Generally, the simpler the organism, the more radiation it can tolerate. (Cancer cells are a partial exception, because they are rapidly reproducing and, thus, more sensitive.) Current licensing allows up to 1000 Gy to be applied to fresh fruits and vegetables, called a low dose in food irradiation. Such a dose is enough to prevent or reduce the growth of many microorganisms, but about 10,000 Gy is needed to kill salmonella, and even more is needed to kill fungi. Doses greater than 10,000 Gy are considered to be high doses in food irradiation and product sterilization.

The effectiveness of food irradiation varies with the type of food. Spices and many fruits and vegetables have dramatically longer shelf lives. These also show no degradation in taste and no loss of food value or vitamins. If not for the mandatory labeling, such foods subjected to low-level irradiation (up to 1000 Gy) could not be distinguished from untreated foods in quality. However, some foods actually spoil faster after irradiation, particularly those with high water content like lettuce and peaches. Others, such as milk, are given a noticeably unpleasant taste. High-level irradiation produces significant and chemically measurable changes in foods. It produces about a 15% loss of nutrients and a 25% loss of vitamins, as well as some change in taste. Such losses are similar to those that occur in ordinary freezing and cooking.

How does food irradiation work? Ionization produces a random assortment of broken molecules and ions, some with unstable oxygen- or hydrogen-containing molecules known as free radicals    . These undergo rapid chemical reactions, producing perhaps four or five thousand different compounds called radiolytic products    , some of which make cell function impossible by breaking cell membranes, fracturing DNA, and so on. How safe is the food afterward? Critics argue that the radiolytic products present a lasting hazard, perhaps being carcinogenic. However, the safety of irradiated food is not known precisely. We do know that low-level food irradiation produces no compounds in amounts that can be measured chemically. This is not surprising, since trace amounts of several thousand compounds may be created. We also know that there have been no observable negative short-term effects on consumers. Long-term effects may show up if large number of people consume large quantities of irradiated food, but no effects have appeared due to the small amounts of irradiated food that are consumed regularly. The case for safety is supported by testing of animal diets that were irradiated; no transmitted genetic effects have been observed. Food irradiation (at least up to a million rad) has been endorsed by the World Health Organization and the UN Food and Agricultural Organization. Finally, the hazard to consumers, if it exists, must be weighed against the benefits in food production and preservation. It must also be weighed against the very real hazards of existing insecticides and food preservatives.

Conceptual questions

Does food irradiation leave the food radioactive? To what extent is the food altered chemically for low and high doses in food irradiation?

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Compare a low dose of radiation to a human with a low dose of radiation used in food treatment.

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Suppose one food irradiation plant uses a 137 Cs size 12{ {} rSup { size 8{"137"} } "Cs"} {} source while another uses an equal activity of 60 Co size 12{ {} rSup { size 8{"60"} } "Co"} {} . Assuming equal fractions of the γ size 12{γ} {} rays from the sources are absorbed, why is more time needed to get the same dose using the 137 Cs size 12{ {} rSup { size 8{"137"} } "Cs"} {} source?

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Questions & Answers

and yea about that hypothesis thing....For electrons and photons and other microscopic particles ...The dual nature applicable but Macroscopic object follows De Broglie's Hypothesis or Theory
Bibekbir Reply
Duh !! And guys I can't see any conversation! All I can guess what is going on ,on board is through notifications ! otherwise this screen is blank ! Does anybody know what is happening ?
Bibekbir
I am facing problem ....I am not able to view the latest conversation in group discussion. ..its just showing a blank page even after reinstalling the app...although the Internet connection is also working
Bibekbir
its ok
Salima
Therefore it was summarised that electrons or any particle for instance (*De Broglie's hypothesis ) shows Dual nature
Bibekbir Reply
ok i get it but it is still a hypothesis
Salima
can i ask qusetions sometimes
Salima
yup it was as if electrons knew they were being watched ...
Bibekbir Reply
Which I personally find very creepy !
Bibekbir
Which I personally find very creepy !
Bibekbir
it is creepy
Salima
Which confused scientists so much ...so tried the same experiment using a microscope this time to watch the motion of the electrons...and surprisingly this time two slits were formed. !
Bibekbir Reply
really
Salima
Well what common sense says is ...There will be two slits on photographic plate...
Bibekbir Reply
But what was observed was totally unexpected. ..There were wave like imprint on the photographic plate....like water waves...
Bibekbir
ok then...
Salima
Well to explain the dual nature of light ...We need to study Young's double slit experiment .In which,.. okay I want you to imagine I have gun loaded with electrons. ..and before me I have this sheet with two slit in it and behind this sheet a photographic plate. .....what do you think my observation will be ?
Bibekbir Reply
can't say anything
Salima
Well light can exist as wave as well as a particle....There is something called Dual nature of light
Bibekbir Reply
yes you got it
Ahmad
i know about it but how is it possible
Salima
it depends upon given condition to photon
Ahmad
here is answer about that
Bashir
here is no answer about that
Bashir
Mr. Bashir there is no question that have no answer
Salima
ok
Bashir
Why the Big Bang create more matter then antimatter?
Salima Reply
there are a few theories but it is still mostly a mystery
James
Is it possible that the whole concept of antimatter is wrong after all its just theories
Salima
no its not theory
ghulam
but there is no strong evidence about it they are trying to make antimatter what if they are searching for, turns out something different other then antimatter
Salima
half of physics does not consists of the strong evidence
ghulam
salima are you pakistani ?
ghulam
yeah
Salima
I read in class 10th
Salima
And i am not talking about evidence
Salima
Actually there is an evidence .....its called cosmic inflation. ..
Bibekbir
can you explain
Salima
sure
Bibekbir
It's like this....okay imagine for a second that all the galaxies and stars ...and planet with all their energies vanishes
Bibekbir
please explain
Salima
even the black holes dark matter and dark energies also vanishes...
Bibekbir
Can anyone tell me what should be left ?
Bibekbir
ok
Salima
nothing but space
Salima
You will say an empty void ...but that's not the case after this called universe mapping we got this an active energetic background ! which was expanding at a very fast rate
Bibekbir
Now if something is expanding at a speed of nearly speed of light !! then it must have stated from a very small sized object and there you have big bang theory
Bibekbir
yeah i get it
Salima
You will say a void right ? But that was not what mathematical calculations said ....even there is something called universe mapping which mapped the energies in this background. ... and we found that this universe as whole itself was increasing with the speed faster than light !!!
Bibekbir
faster then light!!!
Salima
interesting question. would love a proper explanation.
Beatrax
questions are always intersting only if you know the answer
Salima
or understand the question
Salima
yup faster than light ...now here some people will ask that Einstein had claimed nothing can be faster than light right ? ....but the Universe doesn't count in 'nothing ' and everything is in universe including light ...
Bibekbir
Beatrax do you have a question?
Bibekbir
universe is expending right so there must be a limit for its expension and after that would it be possible that it start contracting again?
Salima
Well we simply don't know to what universe is expanding to .....so here comes string theory....which is story of another time though. ... yes there is a theory though which claims that the universe will again collapse in a small mass just as it started in big bang
Bibekbir
so we can say that big bang will happen again
Salima
Let's come back to your question on antimatter right ? ....well we simply don't have a lot of information about anti matter...though there is a theory which claims that at the time of big bang antimatter was made with matter ....but not in the same quantity. ..
Bibekbir
Because if it were to happen .....The matter won't simply exist ...but we know it does exist....
Bibekbir
there must be some reason that why it creat more matter
Salima
and no the concept of antimatter is NOT wrong!!! Don't ever say that !!! Because some scientists spent their whole life studying on this .....and you will be surprised to know that there are antimatter found on the exosphere of Earth.
Bibekbir
and Ghulam you wrong there Bro. ..70% of physics is mathematics.....which language of universe....which is kinda right every time. ..Einstein gave all his theory solely based on thoughts and mathematics...
Bibekbir
really how is it possible was it natural i know that they are making antimatter but i don't believe it
Salima
And before something become a solid point ... ..It has to go through a long process of scientists in panels and all those stuff. ....and surprisingly it's all observable phenomenons....so yeah physics is actually defination of logic....mind that ..
Bibekbir
Do anyone have any question? feel free to ask ...
Bibekbir
yeah i also think that physics is the basic of all the universe and every thing we see in it
Salima
oh yeah i will
Salima
Yeah we kinda don't know....a lot on this ....moreover....I have not been keeping tap on this topic....so maybe they have got some stuff up their sleeves but I just don't know...
Bibekbir
what is actully light photons or electromagnetic waves
Salima
Well main topic which I focus on is dark matter dark energy and exoplanets. ..
Bibekbir
and maybe little bit of quantum mechanics
Bibekbir
ah there good question !! very good question! !
Bibekbir
are you a student of physics and where are you from
Salima
thanks
Salima
okay now ....We don't only have proton electron and neutron duh ! that's what students are taught!
Bibekbir
Actually from CERN till now 35 subatomic particles have been found !!!
Bibekbir
and now let's come back to your question about what is light photons....I guess you all from 12th grade am I right ?
Bibekbir
oh whats the 35 subatomic particals
Salima
no actully 10th grade
Salima
What? I am actually umm. ...In my first year of college ....Sem1 so yea I am 18 years old....and I am doing undergraduate course in Maths Chemistry and Physics ... I am from India ! Duh ! I thought my name would give away my nationality !
Bibekbir
There are a lot of those subatomic particles like higgs boson particle is one of them
Bibekbir
oh
Salima
Not a lot 35
Bibekbir
i am physics professor any problm dear friend
ghulam
oh what about my question
Salima
Salima you know a lot according to your age. ...don't worry you have a while chapter in 11th and 12th physics in electromagnetic waves and light photon ....
Bibekbir
*whole
Bibekbir
i am 16 years old
Salima
Mr. Ghulam No hard feelings I just said what I felt right . And I just love physics a lot can't just read any bad comment about it.Again I said what I felt right. If you are offended by anything I said Sir,then I am sorry . I am not here offend anyone,.just give my honest answers andwhatever I study
Bibekbir
Mr.Ghulam are you a Pakistani
Salima
why physics is more difficult for commerce student?
Bashir
i am a fsc pre medical student
Sameer
hello
James
am james
James
physics is not difficult but when you don't have any interest it seems difficult
Salima
James can you tell us about big bang theory?
Bashir
Bashir you can read it in above comments
Salima
Yes but is very necessary for us but how to understand that cause our direction is another side
Bashir
hi Bibekbir are you there
Salima
stay on your direction Mr. Bashir
Salima
Yes
Bashir
can anyone answer my question?
Salima
Yes can but ..
Bashir
but..
Salima
i just want answer not "but"
Salima
Ok you can ask
Bashir
?
Bashir
what light actually photon or electromagnetic waves
Salima
Both
Ahmad
how? can a partical be wave at the same time
Salima
yes photon depend upon condition
Ahmad
photon is the energy packet ..light consist of photons in the form of EM waves
ghulam
What is the difference between potential difference and electromotive force
Neba Reply
basically potentiometer is series circuit or parallel circuit?
muhammad Reply
What is half-life
Godwin Reply
the life in which half of the radioactive element decay
Arif
what is fluid
Anthony Reply
anything that flows is Liquid.
prakash
a substance that has no specific shape
Saleemulhaq
How submarines floats one water the same time sink in water
Courage Reply
A submarine has the ability to float and sink. The ability to control buoyancy comes from the submarine'strim or ballast tanks which can be filled with either water or air, depending on whether the submarine needs to floator sink. When the submarine floats it means its trim tanks are filled with air
Arif
define electromagnetic radiation
Anthony
what is work
Ojo Reply
Force times distance
Karanja
product of force and distance...
Arif
Is physics a natural science?
Adebisi Reply
Nature is all physics
Salima
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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