The net work done by a cyclical process is the area inside the closed path on a
$\text{PV}$ diagram, such as that inside path ABCDA in
[link] . Note that in every imaginable cyclical process, it is absolutely necessary for heat transfer from the system to occur in order to get a net work output. In the Otto cycle, heat transfer occurs along path DA. If no heat transfer occurs, then the return path is the same, and the net work output is zero. The lower the temperature on the path AB, the less work has to be done to compress the gas. The area inside the closed path is then greater, and so the engine does more work and is thus more efficient. Similarly, the higher the temperature along path CD, the more work output there is. (See
[link] .) So efficiency is related to the temperatures of the hot and cold reservoirs. In the next section, we shall see what the absolute limit to the efficiency of a heat engine is, and how it is related to temperature.
Section summary
The two expressions of the second law of thermodynamics are: (i) Heat transfer occurs spontaneously from higher- to lower-temperature bodies but never spontaneously in the reverse direction; and (ii) It is impossible in any system for heat transfer from a reservoir to completely convert to work in a cyclical process in which the system returns to its initial state.
Irreversible processes depend on path and do not return to their original state. Cyclical processes are processes that return to their original state at the end of every cycle.
In a cyclical process, such as a heat engine, the net work done by the system equals the net heat transfer into the system, or
$W={Q}_{\text{h}}\u2013{Q}_{\text{c}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}$ , where
${Q}_{\text{h}}$ is the heat transfer from the hot object (hot reservoir), and
${Q}_{\text{c}}$ is the heat transfer into the cold object (cold reservoir).
Efficiency can be expressed as
$\text{Eff}=\frac{W}{{Q}_{\text{h}}}$ ,
the ratio of work output divided by the amount of energy input.
The four-stroke gasoline engine is often explained in terms of the Otto cycle, which is a repeating sequence of processes that convert heat into work.
Questions & Answers
A Body of maas m slides down an incline and reached the bottoms with a velocity v
When using the Conservation of Energy equation, do we substitute the energy as a negative quantity when the energies on a single object are exerting forces opposite to one another?
Ex. On an inclined plane, gravitational potential energy, friction energy/work and spring potential energy. (Let's say that the spring is keeping the box from sliding down the slope.) How do we use this in the equation? I'm so confused
Jennifer
Oh! And if there's kinetic energy that is exerting a force opposite to the spring, what do we do?
Jennifer
Then we subtract the k.e. from force exerted from newton's 2nd law.
Prem
Subtract energy from force? They're different units
Jennifer
why is it dat when using double pan balance
the known and unknown mass are the same
the basic formula is uncertainty in momentum multiplied buy uncertainty In position is greater than or equal to 4×pi/2. same formula for energy and time
Luke
I have this one question can you please look it up it's 9702/22/O/N/17
Question 1 B 3
ayesha
what
uma
would you like physics?
Suthar
yes
farooq
precision or absolute uncertainty is always equal to least count of that instrument
Is there a formula for time of free fall given that the body has initial velocity? In other words, formula for time that takes a downward-shot projectile to hit the ground. Thanks!
Formula for for the falling body with initial velocity is:v^2=v(initial)^2+2*g*h
Mateo
i can't understand
Maxamed
we can't do this calculation without knowing the height of the initial position of the particle
Chathu
sorry but no more in science
Imoreh
2 forces whose resultant is 100N, are at right angle to each other .if one of them makes an angle of 30 degree with the resultant determine it's magnitude
The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system
a load of 20N on a wire of cross sectional area 8×10^-7m produces an extension of 10.4m. calculate the young modules of the material of the wire is of length 5m
Young's modulus = stress/strain
strain = extension/length (x/l)
stress = force/area (F/A)
stress/strain is F l/A x
El
so solve it
Ebenezer
please
Ebenezer
two bodies x and y start from rest and move with uniform acceleration of a and 4a respectively. if the bodies cover the same distance in terms of tx and ty what is the ratio of tx to ty