We have seen that work done by or against the gravitational force depends only on the starting and ending points, and not on the path between, allowing us to define the simplifying concept of gravitational potential energy. We can do the same thing for a few other forces, and we will see that this leads to a formal definition of the law of conservation of energy.
Making connections: take-home investigation—converting potential to kinetic energy
One can study the conversion of gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy in this experiment. On a smooth, level surface, use a ruler of the kind that has a groove running along its length and a book to make an incline (see
[link] ). Place a marble at the 10-cm position on the ruler and let it roll down the ruler. When it hits the level surface, measure the time it takes to roll one meter. Now place the marble at the 20-cm and the 30-cm positions and again measure the times it takes to roll 1 m on the level surface. Find the velocity of the marble on the level surface for all three positions. Plot velocity squared versus the distance traveled by the marble. What is the shape of each plot? If the shape is a straight line, the plot shows that the marble’s kinetic energy at the bottom is proportional to its potential energy at the release point.
Section summary
Work done against gravity in lifting an object becomes potential energy of the object-Earth system.
The change in gravitational potential energy,
$\mathrm{\Delta}{\text{PE}}_{\text{g}}$ , is
${\text{\Delta PE}}_{\mathrm{g}}=\text{mgh}$ , with
$h$ being the increase in height and
$\mathrm{g}$ the acceleration due to gravity.
The gravitational potential energy of an object near Earth’s surface is due to its position in the mass-Earth system. Only differences in gravitational potential energy,
${\text{\Delta PE}}_{\mathrm{g}}$ , have physical significance.
As an object descends without friction, its gravitational potential energy changes into kinetic energy corresponding to increasing speed, so that
$\text{\Delta KE}\text{= \u2212}{\text{\Delta PE}}_{\text{g}}$ .
Conceptual questions
In
[link] , we calculated the final speed of a roller coaster that descended 20 m in height and had an initial speed of 5 m/s downhill. Suppose the roller coaster had had an initial speed of 5 m/s
uphill instead, and it coasted uphill, stopped, and then rolled back down to a final point 20 m below the start. We would find in that case that it had the same final speed. Explain in terms of conservation of energy.
Does the work you do on a book when you lift it onto a shelf depend on the path taken? On the time taken? On the height of the shelf? On the mass of the book?
A hydroelectric power facility (see
[link] ) converts the gravitational potential energy of water behind a dam to electric energy. (a) What is the gravitational potential energy relative to the generators of a lake of volume
$\text{50}\text{.}\mathrm{0\; k}{\text{m}}^{3}$ (
$\text{mass}=5\text{.}\text{00}\times {\text{10}}^{\text{13}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg})$ , given that the lake has an average height of 40.0 m above the generators? (b) Compare this with the energy stored in a 9-megaton fusion bomb.
(b) The ratio of gravitational potential energy in the lake to the energy stored in the bomb is 0.52. That is, the energy stored in the lake is approximately half that in a 9-megaton fusion bomb.
(a) How much gravitational potential energy (relative to the ground on which it is built) is stored in the Great Pyramid of Cheops, given that its mass is about
$7\times {\text{10}}^{9}\text{kg}$ and its center of mass is 36.5 m above the surrounding ground? (b) How does this energy compare with the daily food intake of a person?
Suppose a 350-g kookaburra (a large kingfisher bird) picks up a 75-g snake and raises it 2.5 m from the ground to a branch. (a) How much work did the bird do on the snake? (b) How much work did it do to raise its own center of mass to the branch?
In
[link] , we found that the speed of a roller coaster that had descended 20.0 m was only slightly greater when it had an initial speed of 5.00 m/s than when it started from rest. This implies that
$\text{\Delta}{\text{PEKE}}_{\text{i}}$ . Confirm this statement by taking the ratio of
$\text{\Delta}\text{PE}$ to
${\text{KE}}_{\text{i}}$ . (Note that mass cancels.)
A 100-g toy car is propelled by a compressed spring that starts it moving. The car follows the curved track in
[link] . Show that the final speed of the toy car is 0.687 m/s if its initial speed is 2.00 m/s and it coasts up the frictionless slope, gaining 0.180 m in altitude.
In a downhill ski race, surprisingly, little advantage is gained by getting a running start. (This is because the initial kinetic energy is small compared with the gain in gravitational potential energy on even small hills.) To demonstrate this, find the final speed and the time taken for a skier who skies 70.0 m along a
$\text{30\xba}$ slope neglecting friction: (a) Starting from rest. (b) Starting with an initial speed of 2.50 m/s. (c) Does the answer surprise you? Discuss why it is still advantageous to get a running start in very competitive events.
Is there a formula for time of free fall given that the body has initial velocity? In other words, formula for time that takes a downward-shot projectile to hit the ground. Thanks!
Formula for for the falling body with initial velocity is:v^2=v(initial)^2+2*g*h
Mateo
i can't understand
Maxamed
we can't do this calculation without knowing the height of the initial position of the particle
Chathu
sorry but no more in science
Imoreh
2 forces whose resultant is 100N, are at right angle to each other .if one of them makes an angle of 30 degree with the resultant determine it's magnitude
The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system
a load of 20N on a wire of cross sectional area 8×10^-7m produces an extension of 10.4m. calculate the young modules of the material of the wire is of length 5m
Young's modulus = stress/strain
strain = extension/length (x/l)
stress = force/area (F/A)
stress/strain is F l/A x
El
so solve it
Ebenezer
please
Ebenezer
two bodies x and y start from rest and move with uniform acceleration of a and 4a respectively. if the bodies cover the same distance in terms of tx and ty what is the ratio of tx to ty
The atoms which form the element Cesium are known as Cesium atoms.
Naman
A material that combines with and removes trace gases from vacuum tubes.
Shankar
what is difference between entropy and heat capacity
Varun
Heat capacity can be defined as the amount of thermal energy required to warm the sample by 1°C. entropy is the disorder of the system. heat capacity is high when the disorder is high.
The quantum realm, also called the quantum scale, is a term of art inphysics referring to scales where quantum mechanical effects become important when studied as an isolated system. Typically, this means distances of 100 nanometers (10−9meters) or less or at very low temperature.
i want know physics practically where used in daily life
Vinodhini
I want to teach physics very interesting to studentd
Vinodhini
how can you build interest in physics
Prince
by reading it
Austin
understanding difficult
Vinodhini
vinodhini mam, physics is used in our day to day life in all events..... everything happening around us can be explained in the base of physics.....
saying simple stories happening in our daily life and relating it to physics and questioning students about how or why its happening like that can make
revolutionary
your class more interesting
revolutionary
anything send about physics daily life
Vinodhini
How to understand easily
Vinodhini
check out "LMES" youtube channel
revolutionary
even when you see this message in your phone...it works accord to a physics principle. you touch screen works based on physics, your internet works based on physics, etc....... check out google and search for it
revolutionary
what is mean by Newtonian principle of Relativity?
definition and explanation with example