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Can a sound wave in air be polarized? Explain.

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No light passes through two perfect polarizing filters with perpendicular axes. However, if a third polarizing filter is placed between the original two, some light can pass. Why is this? Under what circumstances does most of the light pass?

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Explain what happens to the energy carried by light that it is dimmed by passing it through two crossed polarizing filters.

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When particles scattering light are much smaller than its wavelength, the amount of scattering is proportional to 1 / λ 4 size 12{1/λ rSup { size 8{4} } } {} . Does this mean there is more scattering for small λ size 12{λ} {} than large λ size 12{λ} {} ? How does this relate to the fact that the sky is blue?

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Using the information given in the preceding question, explain why sunsets are red.

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When light is reflected at Brewster’s angle from a smooth surface, it is 100% size 12{"100"%} {} polarized parallel to the surface. Part of the light will be refracted into the surface. Describe how you would do an experiment to determine the polarization of the refracted light. What direction would you expect the polarization to have and would you expect it to be 100% size 12{"100"%} {} ?

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Problems&Exercises

What angle is needed between the direction of polarized light and the axis of a polarizing filter to cut its intensity in half?

45 . size 12{"45" "." 0°} {}

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The angle between the axes of two polarizing filters is 45 . size 12{"45" "." 0°} {} . By how much does the second filter reduce the intensity of the light coming through the first?

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If you have completely polarized light of intensity 150 W / m 2 size 12{"150"`W/m rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , what will its intensity be after passing through a polarizing filter with its axis at an 89 . size 12{"89" "." 0°} {} angle to the light’s polarization direction?

45 . 7 mW/m 2 size 12{"45" "." 7`"mW/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

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What angle would the axis of a polarizing filter need to make with the direction of polarized light of intensity 1 . 00 kW/m 2 size 12{1 "." "00"`"kW/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} to reduce the intensity to 10 . 0 W/m 2 size 12{10 "." 0`"W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} ?

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At the end of [link] , it was stated that the intensity of polarized light is reduced to 90 . 0% size 12{"90" "." 0%} {} of its original value by passing through a polarizing filter with its axis at an angle of 18 . size 12{"18" "." 4°} {} to the direction of polarization. Verify this statement.

90 . 0% size 12{"90" "." 0%} {}

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Show that if you have three polarizing filters, with the second at an angle of 45º size 12{"45"°} {} to the first and the third at an angle of 90 . size 12{"90" "." 0°} {} to the first, the intensity of light passed by the first will be reduced to 25 . 0% size 12{"25" "." 0%} {} of its value. (This is in contrast to having only the first and third, which reduces the intensity to zero, so that placing the second between them increases the intensity of the transmitted light.)

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Prove that, if I is the intensity of light transmitted by two polarizing filters with axes at an angle θ and I is the intensity when the axes are at an angle 90.0º θ, then I + I = I 0, the original intensity. (Hint: Use the trigonometric identities cos ( 90.0º θ ) = sin θ and cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 1. )

I 0 size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } } {}

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At what angle will light reflected from diamond be completely polarized?

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What is Brewster’s angle for light traveling in water that is reflected from crown glass?

48 . size 12{"48" "." 8°} {}

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A scuba diver sees light reflected from the water’s surface. At what angle will this light be completely polarized?

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At what angle is light inside crown glass completely polarized when reflected from water, as in a fish tank?

41 . size 12{"41" "." 2°} {}

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Light reflected at 55 . size 12{"55" "." 6°} {} from a window is completely polarized. What is the window’s index of refraction and the likely substance of which it is made?

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(a) Light reflected at 62 . size 12{"62" "." 5°} {} from a gemstone in a ring is completely polarized. Can the gem be a diamond? (b) At what angle would the light be completely polarized if the gem was in water?

(a) 1.92, not diamond (Zircon)

(b) 55 . size 12{"55" "." 2°} {}

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If θ b is Brewster’s angle for light reflected from the top of an interface between two substances, and θ b is Brewster’s angle for light reflected from below, prove that θ b + θ b = 90 . 0º. size 12{θ rSub { size 8{b} } + { {θ}} sup { ' } rSub { size 8{b} } ="90" "." 0°} {}

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Integrated Concepts

If a polarizing filter reduces the intensity of polarized light to 50 . 0% size 12{"50" "." 0%} {} of its original value, by how much are the electric and magnetic fields reduced?

B 2 = 0 . 707 B 1 size 12{B rSub { size 8{2} } =0 "." "707"B rSub { size 8{1} } } {}

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Integrated Concepts

Suppose you put on two pairs of Polaroid sunglasses with their axes at an angle of 15 . size 12{"15" "." 0°} {} . How much longer will it take the light to deposit a given amount of energy in your eye compared with a single pair of sunglasses? Assume the lenses are clear except for their polarizing characteristics.

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Integrated Concepts

(a) On a day when the intensity of sunlight is 1 . 00 kW / m 2 size 12{1 "." "00"`"kW"/m rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , a circular lens 0.200 m in diameter focuses light onto water in a black beaker. Two polarizing sheets of plastic are placed in front of the lens with their axes at an angle of 20 . 0º. size 12{"20" "." 0°} {} Assuming the sunlight is unpolarized and the polarizers are 100% size 12{"100"%} {} efficient, what is the initial rate of heating of the water in ºC / s size 12{°C/s} {} , assuming it is 80 . 0% size 12{"80" "." 0%} {} absorbed? The aluminum beaker has a mass of 30.0 grams and contains 250 grams of water. (b) Do the polarizing filters get hot? Explain.

(a) 2.07 × 10 -2 °C/s

(b) Yes, the polarizing filters get hot because they absorb some of the lost energy from the sunlight.

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Questions & Answers

If an object has no acceleration in an inertial reference frame, can you conclude that no forces are acting on it?
Von Reply
No unbalanced forces
Sorry, no unbalanced net force
What are the two major system units in the world
Jizel Reply
What is physical quantities
Jizel
they are physical properties that can be measured or calculated
ZIFAC
Do you mean the SI system and Imperial system? SI is used by scientists the world over (with notable exception being the USA)
Who is the father of physics
Gabriel Reply
Newton.Geliliyo and Einstein is called father of physics
Neha
Newtin
Jizel
Einstein
Jizel
Ancient - Archimedes Classical Physics - Newton Modern Physics - Einstein But each of these has built on the work of predecessors. No single personality defines physics.
Thanks
Hussain
Galileo Galilie must be. He was the creator of the scientific method
Vincent
Galileo was no doubt inspirational, but the scientific method has existed for millennia. What Galileo did was prove the superiority of experimentation to just thinking (Aristotle's way). Again all noteworthy scientists
Newton galileo and Einstein
Gabriel
what is wave
Charity Reply
a wave is a distirbance that transmits energy from one place ro another within or without a medium
Vincent
wave is the transfer of energy from one medium to another without the transfer of particles
ZIFAC
wave is a disturbance which transfer energy from one medium to another without causing any permanent displacement by itself
Joyfulsounds
wave is a disturbance or oscillation that travel through space and matter,accompanied by a transfer of energy
Ridwan
A wave is any disturbances in an elastic medium which carries energy from one point to another through a medium
abdul
what is harmonic motion
Nozyani
is a restoring force
Joyfulsounds
a wave is a disturbance and there are trasfer energy from one medium to another and travel through any space without the trasfer of particles.
Neha
a wave is a disturbance that travels or carries energy from one point to another through a medium
Wisdom
A moving disturbance in the level of a body water, undulation
Jizel
what is thermodynamics
Williams Reply
what is thermodynamics
Charity
thermodynamics is a heat and energy significant physics
Neha
Relating to the conversation of heat into other forms of energy
Jizel
It's the science of conversion between heat and other forms of energy
ZIFAC
Are the antimatters of Hadrons also Hadrons?!Does the same rule apply to Leptons?
Daniel Reply
yes. Hadrons are the elementary particles that take part in stong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. Infact only Hadrons are involved in Strong interactions and when an anti-particle of any hadron is produced, it would be a hadron-conservations laws. Leptons are involved in weak int and follow
Lalita
what is physics
Sade
physic is a pure science that deal with behavior of matter,energy & how it related to other physical properties
Ridwan
Owk. But am are Art student.
Hussaini
Thanks a lot,Lalita
Daniel
what are the differences between reflection and refraction ?
Matins
What happens when an aeroplanes window is opened at cruise altitude?
Theophilus Reply
what is the minimum speed for any object to travel in time?
Pankaj Reply
as per theory of relativity, minimum speed will be the speed of light
Mr.
what is physics
Lote Reply
it is just a branch of science which deals with the reasons behind the daily activities taking place everyday in our lives. it clearly states the reason in the form of laws.
sandhya
?
lkpostpost2000@yahoo
like Newton's laws , Kepler's laws etc....
sandhya
physics is the study of motion or moving things. Usually the moving things are normal items like vars or planets but sometimes it's electricity or heat that moves.
Jake
physics is one of the most significant diciplines of natural science which describe the nature and its matter
Neha
I would describe it as the science that is interested in the fundamental laws of nature. For example, what is light, what is sound, what is electricity/magentism, what forces are at work on a specific body. The knowledge of the world around us makes it possible to fly, have cell phones, GPS, etc.
Robyn
what happens when an aeroplane takes off?
Kofi Reply
it flies
Mr.
the lift generated by the wing overcome the weight of the plane(in Newton)and a net force of upward is created
Phebilia
it is a direct application of Magnus effect (which helps in throwing curve balls) the wings of plane are made in such a way that the net flow of air is more below them rather than on their upper side. So when the plane accelerates, the flaps produce the upward lift when enough velocity is obtained
Mr.
then due to lower pressure on upper part of wings helps producing an additional lift because air flows from areaof lower to the area of higher pressure
Mr.
The engines located under the wings generate thrust .. in relation thrust is a force ... which ovwrcomes or becomes greater than the weight of the plane.. remember weight is a force Weight = m x g-2 So therefore F(thrust) becomes greater than F(weight) Even if by 1Newton the plane starts lifting o
Theophilus
what happens when a ship moves
Williams
What is the sign of an acceleration that reduces the magnitude of a negative velocity? Of a positive velocity?
Conwil Reply
If it reduces the magnitude of the velocity, the acceleration sign is the opposite compared to the velocity.
Nicolas
yes
Williams
what is accerelation
John Reply
an objects tendency to speed up over time
RayRay
acceleration is the change in velocity over the change in time it would be written delta-v over delta-t.
Shii
the change in velocity V over a period of time T.
Matthew
Delta means "change in"...not period of
Shii
just kidding. it all works mathematically
Shii
except doesn't time really only change if the instantaneous speeds vary...?
Shii
and I assume we are all talking average acceleration
Shii
Hey shiii 😀
conrad
the rate of change of velocity is callaed acceleration
Amna
a=delta v/delta t
Amna
the rate of change in velocity with respect to time is acceleration
Nana
nana you r right
Indrajit
good
oguji
what is meant by lost volt
Hardeyyemih Reply
Lost volt. Lol. It is the electrical energy lost due to the nature or the envirommental conditions (temperature and pressure) that affect the cable across which the potential difference is measured.
Theophilus
What is physics?
Bedabyas Reply
physics is brance science concerned with nature and properties of matter and energy
George
sure
Okpara
yah....
kashif
physics is study of the natural phenomenon on the basis of certain laws and principles. it's like watching a game of chess and trying to understand its rules how it's played.
Ajit
awesome
Okpara
physics is study of nature and it's law
AMRITA
physics is a branch of science that deals with the study of matter ,properties of matter and energy
Lote
Branch of science (study) of matter, motion and energy
Theophilus
what is a double-slit experiment?Explain.
Daniel Reply
when you pass a wave of any kind ie sound water light ect you get an interface pattern forming on a screen behind it, where the peaks and troughs add and cancel out due to the diffraction caused by a wave traveling through the slits
Luke
double slit experiment was done by YOUNG. And it's to give out monochromatic coherent, if an incoherent wave is passing through it. And then the waves form interference fringes. The screen placed in front of the double slit is preferably a film and then in the middle where "p=0" a brighter color
navid
is formed and then the constructive interferences occur at 0 (which is the brightest band)... then a sequence of bright band (constructive interference) and dark band (destructive interference) happens and the further from the central band the lower the intensity of bright band(constructive interfe
navid

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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