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To check your answer, consider the following:

(1) Be sure that you have properly cancelled the units in the unit conversion. If you have written the unit conversion factor upside down, the units will not cancel properly in the equation. If you accidentally get the ratio upside down, then the units will not cancel; rather, they will give you the wrong units as follows:

 km min × 1  hr 60  min = 1 60  km hr  min 2 , size 12{ { {"km"} over {"min"} } times { {1`"hr"} over {"60"`"min"} } = { {1} over {"60"} } { {"km" cdot "hr"} over {"min"} } } {}

which are obviously not the desired units of km/h.

(2) Check that the units of the final answer are the desired units. The problem asked us to solve for average speed in units of km/h and we have indeed obtained these units.

(3) Check the significant figures. Because each of the values given in the problem has three significant figures, the answer should also have three significant figures. The answer 30.0 km/hr does indeed have three significant figures, so this is appropriate. Note that the significant figures in the conversion factor are not relevant because an hour is defined to be 60 minutes, so the precision of the conversion factor is perfect.

(4) Next, check whether the answer is reasonable. Let us consider some information from the problem—if you travel 10 km in a third of an hour (20 min), you would travel three times that far in an hour. The answer does seem reasonable.

Solution for (b)

There are several ways to convert the average speed into meters per second.

(1) Start with the answer to (a) and convert km/h to m/s. Two conversion factors are needed—one to convert hours to seconds, and another to convert kilometers to meters.

(2) Multiplying by these yields

Average speed = 30 . 0 km h × 1 h 3,600 s × 1, 000 m 1 km , size 12{"Average"`"speed"="30" "." 0 { {"km"} over {h} } times { {1" h"} over {"3,600 s"} } times { {1,"000"" m"} over {"1 km"} } } {}
Average speed = 8 . 33 m s . size 12{"Average"`"speed"=8 "." "33" { {m} over {s} } } {}

Discussion for (b)

If we had started with 0.500 km/min, we would have needed different conversion factors, but the answer would have been the same: 8.33 m/s.

You may have noted that the answers in the worked example just covered were given to three digits. Why? When do you need to be concerned about the number of digits in something you calculate? Why not write down all the digits your calculator produces? The module Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures will help you answer these questions.

Nonstandard units

While there are numerous types of units that we are all familiar with, there are others that are much more obscure. For example, a firkin is a unit of volume that was once used to measure beer. One firkin equals about 34 liters. To learn more about nonstandard units, use a dictionary or encyclopedia to research different “weights and measures.” Take note of any unusual units, such as a barleycorn, that are not listed in the text. Think about how the unit is defined and state its relationship to SI units.

Some hummingbirds beat their wings more than 50 times per second. A scientist is measuring the time it takes for a hummingbird to beat its wings once. Which fundamental unit should the scientist use to describe the measurement? Which factor of 10 is the scientist likely to use to describe the motion precisely? Identify the metric prefix that corresponds to this factor of 10.

The scientist will measure the time between each movement using the fundamental unit of seconds. Because the wings beat so fast, the scientist will probably need to measure in milliseconds, or 10 3 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } } {} seconds. (50 beats per second corresponds to 20 milliseconds per beat.)

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One cubic centimeter is equal to one milliliter. What does this tell you about the different units in the SI metric system?

The fundamental unit of length (meter) is probably used to create the derived unit of volume (liter). The measure of a milliliter is dependent on the measure of a centimeter.

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Summary

  • Physical quantities are a characteristic or property of an object that can be measured or calculated from other measurements.
  • Units are standards for expressing and comparing the measurement of physical quantities. All units can be expressed as combinations of four fundamental units.
  • The four fundamental units we will use in this text are the meter (for length), the kilogram (for mass), the second (for time), and the ampere (for electric current). These units are part of the metric system, which uses powers of 10 to relate quantities over the vast ranges encountered in nature.
  • The four fundamental units are abbreviated as follows: meter, m; kilogram, kg; second, s; and ampere, A. The metric system also uses a standard set of prefixes to denote each order of magnitude greater than or lesser than the fundamental unit itself.
  • Unit conversions involve changing a value expressed in one type of unit to another type of unit. This is done by using conversion factors, which are ratios relating equal quantities of different units.

Conceptual questions

Identify some advantages of metric units.

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Problems&Exercises

The speed limit on some interstate highways is roughly 100 km/h. (a) What is this in meters per second? (b) How many miles per hour is this?

  1. 27 . 8 m/s size 12{"27" "." 8`"m/s"} {}
  2. 62 . 1 mph size 12{"62" "." 1" mph"} {}
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A car is traveling at a speed of 33 m/s size 12{"33"" m/s"} {} . (a) What is its speed in kilometers per hour? (b) Is it exceeding the 90 km/h size 12{"90"" km/h"} {} speed limit?

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Show that 1 . 0 m/s = 3 . 6 km/h size 12{1 "." 0`"m/s"=3 "." "6 km/h"} {} . Hint: Show the explicit steps involved in converting 1 . 0 m/s = 3 . 6 km/h. size 12{1 "." 0`"m/s"=3 "." "6 km/h"} {}

1.0 m s = 1 . 0 m s × 3600 s 1 hr × 1 km 1000 m size 12{ { {1 "." "0 m"} over {s} } = { {1 "." "0 m"} over {s} } times { {"3600 s"} over {"hr"} } times { {1`"km"} over {"1000 m"} } } {}

= 3 . 6 km/h size 12{ {}=3 "." 6" km/h"} {} .

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American football is played on a 100-yd-long field, excluding the end zones. How long is the field in meters? (Assume that 1 meter equals 3.281 feet.)

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Soccer fields vary in size. A large soccer field is 115 m long and 85 m wide. What are its dimensions in feet and inches? (Assume that 1 meter equals 3.281 feet.)

length: 377 ft size 12{"377"" ft"} {} ; 4 . 53 × 10 3  in . size 12{4 "." "53" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " in" "." } {} width: 280 ft size 12{"280"" ft"} {} ; 3 . 3 × 10 3  in size 12{3 "." 3 times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " in"} {} .

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What is the height in meters of a person who is 6 ft 1.0 in. tall? (Assume that 1 meter equals 39.37 in.)

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Mount Everest, at 29,028 feet, is the tallest mountain on the Earth. What is its height in kilometers? (Assume that 1 kilometer equals 3,281 feet.)

8 . 847 km size 12{8 "." "847"" km"} {}

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The speed of sound is measured to be 342 m/s size 12{"342"" m/s"} {} on a certain day. What is this in km/h?

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Tectonic plates are large segments of the Earth’s crust that move slowly. Suppose that one such plate has an average speed of 4.0 cm/year. (a) What distance does it move in 1 s at this speed? (b) What is its speed in kilometers per million years?

(a) 1 . 3 × 10 9  m size 12{1 "." 3 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 9} } " m"} {}

(b) 40 km/My size 12{"40"" km/My"} {}

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(a) Refer to [link] to determine the average distance between the Earth and the Sun. Then calculate the average speed of the Earth in its orbit in kilometers per second. (b) What is this in meters per second?

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Questions & Answers

what is wave
Charity Reply
a wave is a distirbance that transmits energy from one place ro another within or without a medium
Vincent
wave is the transfer of energy from one medium to another without the transfer of particles
ZIFAC
wave is a disturbance which transfer energy from one medium to another without causing any permanent displacement by itself
Joyfulsounds
wave is a disturbance or oscillation that travel through space and matter,accompanied by a transfer of energy
Ridwan
A wave is any disturbances in an elastic medium which carries energy from one point to another through a medium
abdul
what is harmonic motion
Nozyani
is a restoring force
Joyfulsounds
what is thermodynamics
Williams Reply
what is thermodynamics
Charity
Are the antimatters of Hadrons also Hadrons?!Does the same rule apply to Leptons?
Daniel Reply
yes. Hadrons are the elementary particles that take part in stong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. Infact only Hadrons are involved in Strong interactions and when an anti-particle of any hadron is produced, it would be a hadron-conservations laws. Leptons are involved in weak int and follow
Lalita
what is physics
Sade
physic is a pure science that deal with behavior of matter,energy & how it related to other physical properties
Ridwan
Owk. But am are Art student.
Hussaini
What happens when an aeroplanes window is opened at cruise altitude?
Theophilus Reply
what is the minimum speed for any object to travel in time?
Pankaj Reply
as per theory of relativity, minimum speed will be the speed of light
Mr.
what is physics
Lote Reply
it is just a branch of science which deals with the reasons behind the daily activities taking place everyday in our lives. it clearly states the reason in the form of laws.
sandhya
?
lkpostpost2000@yahoo
like Newton's laws , Kepler's laws etc....
sandhya
physics is the study of motion or moving things. Usually the moving things are normal items like vars or planets but sometimes it's electricity or heat that moves.
Jake
what happens when an aeroplane takes off?
Kofi Reply
it flies
Mr.
the lift generated by the wing overcome the weight of the plane(in Newton)and a net force of upward is created
Phebilia
it is a direct application of Magnus effect (which helps in throwing curve balls) the wings of plane are made in such a way that the net flow of air is more below them rather than on their upper side. So when the plane accelerates, the flaps produce the upward lift when enough velocity is obtained
Mr.
then due to lower pressure on upper part of wings helps producing an additional lift because air flows from areaof lower to the area of higher pressure
Mr.
The engines located under the wings generate thrust .. in relation thrust is a force ... which ovwrcomes or becomes greater than the weight of the plane.. remember weight is a force Weight = m x g-2 So therefore F(thrust) becomes greater than F(weight) Even if by 1Newton the plane starts lifting o
Theophilus
what happens when a ship moves
Williams
What is the sign of an acceleration that reduces the magnitude of a negative velocity? Of a positive velocity?
Conwil Reply
If it reduces the magnitude of the velocity, the acceleration sign is the opposite compared to the velocity.
Nicolas
yes
Williams
what is accerelation
John Reply
an objects tendency to speed up over time
RayRay
acceleration is the change in velocity over the change in time it would be written delta-v over delta-t.
Shii
the change in velocity V over a period of time T.
Matthew
Delta means "change in"...not period of
Shii
just kidding. it all works mathematically
Shii
except doesn't time really only change if the instantaneous speeds vary...?
Shii
and I assume we are all talking average acceleration
Shii
Hey shiii 😀
conrad
the rate of change of velocity is callaed acceleration
Amna
a=delta v/delta t
Amna
the rate of change in velocity with respect to time is acceleration
Nana
nana you r right
Indrajit
good
oguji
what is meant by lost volt
Hardeyyemih Reply
Lost volt. Lol. It is the electrical energy lost due to the nature or the envirommental conditions (temperature and pressure) that affect the cable across which the potential difference is measured.
Theophilus
What is physics?
Bedabyas Reply
physics is brance science concerned with nature and properties of matter and energy
George
sure
Okpara
yah....
kashif
physics is study of the natural phenomenon on the basis of certain laws and principles. it's like watching a game of chess and trying to understand its rules how it's played.
Ajit
awesome
Okpara
physics is study of nature and it's law
AMRITA
physics is a branch of science that deals with the study of matter ,properties of matter and energy
Lote
Branch of science (study) of matter, motion and energy
Theophilus
what is a double-slit experiment?Explain.
Daniel Reply
when you pass a wave of any kind ie sound water light ect you get an interface pattern forming on a screen behind it, where the peaks and troughs add and cancel out due to the diffraction caused by a wave traveling through the slits
Luke
double slit experiment was done by YOUNG. And it's to give out monochromatic coherent, if an incoherent wave is passing through it. And then the waves form interference fringes. The screen placed in front of the double slit is preferably a film and then in the middle where "p=0" a brighter color
navid
is formed and then the constructive interferences occur at 0 (which is the brightest band)... then a sequence of bright band (constructive interference) and dark band (destructive interference) happens and the further from the central band the lower the intensity of bright band(constructive interfe
navid
what is photoelectric effect
Godwin Reply
the emission of electrons in some materials when light of suitable frequency falls on them
Hardeyyemih
The phenomenon that involves the emission of electrons (photoelectrons) when light of appropriate wavelength and frequency is incident on the surface of a metal.
ibrahim
what is regelation
oladipupo Reply
is the process of melting under pressure and freezing when pressure is reduce
bawire
poisons ratio is which chapter
STREET_
Regelation is the phenomenon of melting under pressure and freezing again when the pressure is reduced
Theophilus
how do i convert energy in MeV/c2 to GeV/c2 and vice versa?
Daniel Reply
And also from J/s to MeV?I don't quite understand what is in the book,particle physics just in case.
Daniel

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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