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Collisions

Conservation of energy and momentum often results in energy transfer to a less massive object in a collision. This was discussed in detail in Work, Energy, and Energy Resources , for example.

Different types of radiation have different ranges when compared at the same energy and in the same material. Alphas have the shortest range, betas penetrate farther, and gammas have the greatest range. This is directly related to charge and speed of the particle or type of radiation. At a given energy, each α , β , or γ will produce the same number of ionizations in a material (each ionization requires a certain amount of energy on average). The more readily the particle produces ionization, the more quickly it will lose its energy. The effect of charge is as follows: The α size 12{α} {} has a charge of + 2 q e , the β has a charge of q e size 12{ - 2q rSub { size 8{e} } } {} , and the γ size 12{γ} {} is uncharged. The electromagnetic force exerted by the α size 12{α} {} is thus twice as strong as that exerted by the β size 12{β} {} and it is more likely to produce ionization. Although chargeless, the γ size 12{γ} {} does interact weakly because it is an electromagnetic wave, but it is less likely to produce ionization in any encounter. More quantitatively, the change in momentum Δ p size 12{Δp} {} given to a particle in the material is Δ p = F Δ t , where F size 12{F} {} is the force the α , β , or γ exerts over a time Δ t size 12{Δt} {} . The smaller the charge, the smaller is F size 12{F} {} and the smaller is the momentum (and energy) lost. Since the speed of alphas is about 5% to 10% of the speed of light, classical (non-relativistic) formulas apply.

The speed at which they travel is the other major factor affecting the range of α size 12{α} {} s, β size 12{β} {} s, and γ size 12{γ} {} s. The faster they move, the less time they spend in the vicinity of an atom or a molecule, and the less likely they are to interact. Since α size 12{α} {} s and β size 12{β} {} s are particles with mass (helium nuclei and electrons, respectively), their energy is kinetic, given classically by 1 2 mv 2 size 12{ { {1} over {2} } ital "mv" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . The mass of the β size 12{β} {} particle is thousands of times less than that of the α size 12{α} {} s, so that β size 12{β} {} s must travel much faster than α size 12{α} {} s to have the same energy. Since β size 12{β} {} s move faster (most at relativistic speeds), they have less time to interact than α size 12{α} {} s. Gamma rays are photons, which must travel at the speed of light. They are even less likely to interact than a β size 12{β} {} , since they spend even less time near a given atom (and they have no charge). The range of γ size 12{γ} {} s is thus greater than the range of β size 12{β} {} s.

Alpha radiation from radioactive sources has a range much less than a millimeter of biological tissues, usually not enough to even penetrate the dead layers of our skin. On the other hand, the same α radiation can penetrate a few centimeters of air, so mere distance from a source prevents α size 12{α} {} radiation from reaching us. This makes α size 12{α} {} radiation relatively safe for our body compared to β and γ size 12{γ} {} radiation. Typical β radiation can penetrate a few millimeters of tissue or about a meter of air. Beta radiation is thus hazardous even when not ingested. The range of β size 12{β} {} s in lead is about a millimeter, and so it is easy to store β sources in lead radiation-proof containers. Gamma rays have a much greater range than either α size 12{α} {} s or β size 12{β} {} s. In fact, if a given thickness of material, like a lead brick, absorbs 90% of the γ s, then a second lead brick will only absorb 90% of what got through the first. Thus, γ s do not have a well-defined range; we can only cut down the amount that gets through. Typically, γ size 12{γ} {} s can penetrate many meters of air, go right through our bodies, and are effectively shielded (that is, reduced in intensity to acceptable levels) by many centimeters of lead. One benefit of γ size 12{γ} {} s is that they can be used as radioactive tracers (see [link] ).

This figure shows four images of a skeleton of a human. Different parts of the body show bright spots wherever the bone cells are most active, indicating bone cancer.
This image of the concentration of a radioactive tracer in a patient’s body reveals where the most active bone cells are, an indication of bone cancer. A short-lived radioactive substance that locates itself selectively is given to the patient, and the radiation is measured with an external detector. The emitted γ size 12{γ} {} radiation has a sufficient range to leave the body—the range of α size 12{α} {} s and β size 12{β} {} s is too small for them to be observed outside the patient. (credit: Kieran Maher, Wikimedia Commons)

Phet explorations: beta decay

Watch beta decay occur for a collection of nuclei or for an individual nucleus.

Beta Decay

Section summary

  • Some nuclei are radioactive—they spontaneously decay destroying some part of their mass and emitting energetic rays, a process called nuclear radioactivity.
  • Nuclear radiation, like x rays, is ionizing radiation, because energy sufficient to ionize matter is emitted in each decay.
  • The range (or distance traveled in a material) of ionizing radiation is directly related to the charge of the emitted particle and its energy, with greater-charge and lower-energy particles having the shortest ranges.
  • Radiation detectors are based directly or indirectly upon the ionization created by radiation, as are the effects of radiation on living and inert materials.

Conceptual questions

Suppose the range for 5 . 0 MeV α size 12{5 "." "0 MeV" α} {} ray is known to be 2.0 mm in a certain material. Does this mean that every 5 . 0 MeV α size 12{5 "." "0 MeV" α} {} a ray that strikes this material travels 2.0 mm, or does the range have an average value with some statistical fluctuations in the distances traveled? Explain.

What is the difference between γ size 12{γ} {} rays and characteristic x rays? Is either necessarily more energetic than the other? Which can be the most energetic?

Ionizing radiation interacts with matter by scattering from electrons and nuclei in the substance. Based on the law of conservation of momentum and energy, explain why electrons tend to absorb more energy than nuclei in these interactions.

What characteristics of radioactivity show it to be nuclear in origin and not atomic?

What is the source of the energy emitted in radioactive decay? Identify an earlier conservation law, and describe how it was modified to take such processes into account.

Consider [link] . If an electric field is substituted for the magnetic field with positive charge instead of the north pole and negative charge instead of the south pole, in which directions will the α size 12{α} {} , β size 12{β} {} , and γ size 12{γ} {} rays bend?

Explain how an α size 12{α} {} particle can have a larger range in air than a β size 12{β} {} particle with the same energy in lead.

Arrange the following according to their ability to act as radiation shields, with the best first and worst last. Explain your ordering in terms of how radiation loses its energy in matter.

(a) A solid material with low density composed of low-mass atoms.

(b) A gas composed of high-mass atoms.

(c) A gas composed of low-mass atoms.

(d) A solid with high density composed of high-mass atoms.

Often, when people have to work around radioactive materials spills, we see them wearing white coveralls (usually a plastic material). What types of radiation (if any) do you think these suits protect the worker from, and how?

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
4
Mykayuh Reply
Because I'm writing a report and I would like to be really precise for the references
Gre Reply
where did you find the research and the first image (ECG and Blood pressure synchronized)? Thank you!!
Gre Reply
Practice Key Terms 8

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Source:  OpenStax, Physics 101. OpenStax CNX. Jan 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11479/1.1
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