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Section summary

  • The voltage between points A and B is
    V AB = Ed E = V AB d (uniform E - field only),
    where d size 12{d} {} is the distance from A to B, or the distance between the plates.
  • In equation form, the general relationship between voltage and electric field is
    E = Δ V Δ s , size 12{E= - { {ΔV} over {Δs} } } {}
    where Δ s size 12{Δs} {} is the distance over which the change in potential, Δ V size 12{Δ`V} {} , takes place. The minus sign tells us that E size 12{E} {} points in the direction of decreasing potential.) The electric field is said to be the gradient (as in grade or slope) of the electric potential.

Conceptual questions

Discuss how potential difference and electric field strength are related. Give an example.

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What is the strength of the electric field in a region where the electric potential is constant?

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Will a negative charge, initially at rest, move toward higher or lower potential? Explain why.

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Problems&Exercises

Show that units of V/m and N/C for electric field strength are indeed equivalent.

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What is the strength of the electric field between two parallel conducting plates separated by 1.00 cm and having a potential difference (voltage) between them of 1 . 50 × 10 4 V size 12{1 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } `V} {} ?

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The electric field strength between two parallel conducting plates separated by 4.00 cm is 7 . 50 × 10 4 V/m size 12{7 "." "50"´"10" rSup { size 8{4} } " V/m"} {} . (a) What is the potential difference between the plates? (b) The plate with the lowest potential is taken to be at zero volts. What is the potential 1.00 cm from that plate (and 3.00 cm from the other)?

(a) 3 . 00 kV size 12{3 "." "00"" kV"} {}

(b) 750 V size 12{"750"" V"} {}

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How far apart are two conducting plates that have an electric field strength of 4 . 50 × 10 3 V/m size 12{4 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `"V/m"} {} between them, if their potential difference is 15.0 kV?

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(a) Will the electric field strength between two parallel conducting plates exceed the breakdown strength for air ( 3.0 × 10 6 V/m size 12{3 times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `"V/m"} {} ) if the plates are separated by 2.00 mm and a potential difference of 5.0 × 10 3 V size 12{5 times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `"V"} {} is applied? (b) How close together can the plates be with this applied voltage?

(a) No. The electric field strength between the plates is 2.5 × 10 6 V/m, size 12{2.5 times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `"V/m"} {} which is lower than the breakdown strength for air ( 3.0 × 10 6 V/m size 12{3 times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `"V/m"} {} ).

(b) 1.7 mm

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The voltage across a membrane forming a cell wall is 80.0 mV and the membrane is 9.00 nm thick. What is the electric field strength? (The value is surprisingly large, but correct. Membranes are discussed in Capacitors and Dielectrics and Nerve Conduction—Electrocardiograms .) You may assume a uniform electric field.

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Membrane walls of living cells have surprisingly large electric fields across them due to separation of ions. (Membranes are discussed in some detail in Nerve Conduction—Electrocardiograms .) What is the voltage across an 8.00 nm–thick membrane if the electric field strength across it is 5.50 MV/m? You may assume a uniform electric field.

44.0 mV

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Two parallel conducting plates are separated by 10.0 cm, and one of them is taken to be at zero volts. (a) What is the electric field strength between them, if the potential 8.00 cm from the zero volt plate (and 2.00 cm from the other) is 450 V? (b) What is the voltage between the plates?

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Find the maximum potential difference between two parallel conducting plates separated by 0.500 cm of air, given the maximum sustainable electric field strength in air to be 3.0 × 10 6 V/m size 12{3 times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `"V/m"} {} .

15 kV size 12{"15 kV"} {}

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A doubly charged ion is accelerated to an energy of 32.0 keV by the electric field between two parallel conducting plates separated by 2.00 cm. What is the electric field strength between the plates?

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An electron is to be accelerated in a uniform electric field having a strength of 2 . 00 × 10 6 V/m size 12{2 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `"V/m"} {} . (a) What energy in keV is given to the electron if it is accelerated through 0.400 m? (b) Over what distance would it have to be accelerated to increase its energy by 50.0 GeV?

(a) 800 KeV size 12{"800"" KeV"} {}

(b) 25.0 km size 12{"25" "." 0" km"} {}

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Questions & Answers

example ofchange of state of the body in the effectof heat
Abiodun Reply
what is normal force?
Neyaz Reply
the force that pushes upward on us. the force that opposes gravity
clifford
upthrust of air
Abdikadir
Newton's 3rd law. the force of the ground (earth) that pushes back on gravity, keeping us on the ground instead of sinking into it.
clifford
I really need lots of questions on frictional force
Ogboru Reply
Questions or answers?
Shii
I can help answering what I can
Shii
does friction also need some force to perform?
Mohit
no friction is a force just like the gravitational force
clifford
yeah but u can't apply friction anywhere else like other forces
Mohit
I don't understand that question. friction does work alongside other forces based on the situation.
clifford
eg. when walking there are two forces acting on us gravitational and frictional force. friction helps us move forward and gravity keeps us on the ground
clifford
friction is a contact force. Two surfaces are necessary for the force to work.
clifford
hope this helped
clifford
the friction force which oppose while it contact with surrounding. there are two kind of friction. slidding and rolling friction.
Neyaz
Two unequal masses M1 and M2 are connected by a string of tension T on a plane,find the acceleration and tension in the string
Ogboru
derive the equation
Ogboru
Hi
Olamide
What is physics?
Jeuloriz Reply
physics is a branch of science in which we are dealing with the knowledge of our physical things. macroscopic as well as microscopic. we are going look inside the univers with the help of physics. you can learn nature with the help of physics. so many branches of physics you have to learn physics.
vijay
What are quarks?
Breanna Reply
6 type of quarks
Neyaz
what is candela
Akani Reply
Candela is the unit for the measurement of light intensity.
Osei
any one can prove that 1hrpower= 746 watt
Neyaz Reply
Newton second is the unit of ...............?
Neyaz
Impulse and momentum
Fauzia
force×time and mass× velocity
vijay
Good
Neyaz
What is the simple harmonic motion?
Fauzia Reply
oscillatory motion under a retarding force proportional to the amount of displacement from an equilibrium position
Yuri
Straight out of google, you could do that to, I suppose.
Yuri
*too
Yuri
ok
Fauzia
Oscillatory motion under a regarding force proportional to the amount of displacement from an equilibrium position
Neyaz
examples of work done by load of gravity
Maureen Reply
What is ehrenfest theorem?
Fauzia Reply
You can look it up, faster and more reliable answer.
Yuri
That isn't a question to ask on a forum and I also have no idea what that is.
Yuri
what is the work done by gravity on the load 87kj,11.684m,mass xkg[g=19m/s
Maureen
What is law of mass action?
Fauzia Reply
rate of chemical reactions is proportional to concentration of reactants ...
muhammad
ok thanks
Fauzia
what is lenses
Ndobe Reply
lenses are two types
Fauzia
concave and convex
muhammad
right
Fauzia
speed of light in space
Vikash Reply
in vacuum speed of light is 3×10^8 m/s
vijay
ok
Vikash
2.99×10^8m/s
Umair
2.8820^8m/s
Muhammed
which is correct answer
Vikash
he is correct but we can round up in simple terms
vijay
3×10^8m/s
vijay
is it correct
Fauzia
I mean 3*10^8 m/s ok
vijay
299792458 meter per second
babar
3*10^8m/s
Neyaz
how many Maxwell relations in thermodynamics
vijay
how we can do prove them?
vijay
What is second law of thermodynamics?
Neyaz
please who has a detailed solution to the first two professional application questions under conservation of momentum
Kwaku Reply
I want to know more about pressure
Osei
I can help
Emeh
okay go on
True
I mean on pressure
Emeh
definition of Pressure
John
it is the force per unit area of a substance.S.I unit is Pascal 1pascal is defined as 1N acting on 1m² area i.e 1pa=1N/m²
Emeh
pls explain Doppler effect
Emmex
solve this an inverted differential manometer containing oil specific gravity 0.9 and manometer reading is 400mm find the difference of pressure
Abayomi Reply
Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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