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When is the potential difference across a capacitor an emf?

Only when the current being drawn from or put into the capacitor is zero. Capacitors, like batteries, have internal resistance, so their output voltage is not an emf unless current is zero. This is difficult to measure in practice so we refer to a capacitor’s voltage rather than its emf. But the source of potential difference in a capacitor is fundamental and it is an emf.

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Phet explorations: circuit construction kit (dc only)

An electronics kit in your computer! Build circuits with resistors, light bulbs, batteries, and switches. Take measurements with the realistic ammeter and voltmeter. View the circuit as a schematic diagram, or switch to a life-like view.

Circuit Construction Kit (DC only)

Test prep for ap courses

A battery is connected to a resistor and an uncharged capacitor. The switch for the circuit is closed at t = 0 s.

  1. While the capacitor is being charged, which of the following is true?

    1. Current through and voltage across the resistor increase.
    2. Current through and voltage across the resistor decrease.
    3. Current through and voltage across the resistor first increase and then decrease.
    4. Current through and voltage across the resistor first decrease and then increase.
  2. When the capacitor is fully charged, which of the following is NOT zero?

    1. Current in the resistor.
    2. Voltage across the resistor.
    3. Current in the capacitor.
    4. None of the above.
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An uncharged capacitor C is connected in series (with a switch) to a resistor R 1 and a voltage source E . Assume E = 24 V, R 1 = 1.2 kΩ and C = 1 mF.

  1. What will be the current through the circuit as the switch is closed? Draw a circuit diagram and show the direction of current after the switch is closed. How long will it take for the capacitor to be 99% charged?
  2. After full charging, this capacitor is connected in series to another resistor, R 2 = 1 kΩ. What will be the current in the circuit as soon as it’s connected? Draw a circuit diagram and show the direction of current. How long will it take for the capacitor voltage to reach 3.24 V?

(a) 20 mA, [link] , 5.5 s; (b) 24 mA, [link] , 2 s

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Section summary

  • An RC size 12{ ital "RC"} {} circuit is one that has both a resistor and a capacitor.
  • The time constant τ size 12{τ} {} for an RC size 12{ ital "RC"} {} circuit is τ = RC size 12{τ= ital "RC"} {} .
  • When an initially uncharged ( V 0 = 0 size 12{V rSub { size 8{0} } =0} {} at t = 0 size 12{t=0} {} ) capacitor in series with a resistor is charged by a DC voltage source, the voltage rises, asymptotically approaching the emf of the voltage source; as a function of time,
    V = emf ( 1 e t / RC ) (charging). size 12{V="emf" \( 1 - e rSup { size 8{ - t/ ital "RC"} } \) } {}
  • Within the span of each time constant τ size 12{τ} {} , the voltage rises by 0.632 of the remaining value, approaching the final voltage asymptotically.
  • If a capacitor with an initial voltage V 0 size 12{V rSub { size 8{0} } } {} is discharged through a resistor starting at t = 0 size 12{t=0} {} , then its voltage decreases exponentially as given by
    V = V 0 e t / RC (discharging). size 12{V=V rSub { size 8{0} } e rSup { size 8{ - t/ ital "RC"} } \) } {}
  • In each time constant τ size 12{τ} {} , the voltage falls by 0.368 of its remaining initial value, approaching zero asymptotically.

Conceptual questions

Regarding the units involved in the relationship τ = RC size 12{τ= ital "RC"} {} , verify that the units of resistance times capacitance are time, that is, Ω F = s size 12{ %OMEGA cdot F=s} {} .

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Questions & Answers

Propose a force standard different from the example of a stretched spring discussed in the text. Your standard must be capable of producing the same force repeatedly.
Giovani Reply
What is meant by dielectric charge?
It's Reply
what happens to the size of charge if the dielectric is changed?
Brhanu Reply
omega= omega not +alpha t derivation
Provakar Reply
u have to derivate it respected to time ...and as w is the angular velocity uu will relace it with "thita × time""
Abrar
do to be peaceful with any body
Brhanu Reply
the angle subtended at the center of sphere of radius r in steradian is equal to 4 pi how?
Saeed Reply
if for diatonic gas Cv =5R/2 then gamma is equal to 7/5 how?
Saeed
define variable velocity
Ali Reply
displacement in easy way.
Mubashir Reply
binding energy per nucleon
Poonam Reply
why God created humanity
Manuel Reply
Because HE needs someone to dominate the earth (Gen. 1:26)
Olorunfemi
why god made humenity
Ali
Is the object in a conductor or an insulator? Justify your answer. whats the answer to this question? pls need help figure is given above
Jun Reply
ok we can say body is electrically neutral ...conductor this quality is given to most metalls who have free electron in orbital d ...but human doesn't have ...so we re made from insulator or dielectric material ... furthermore, the menirals in our body like k, Fe , cu , zn
Abrar
when we face electric shock these elements work as a conductor that's why we got this shock
Abrar
how do i calculate the pressure on the base of a deposit if the deposit is moving with a linear aceleration
ximena Reply
why electromagnetic induction is not used in room heater ?
Gopi Reply
room?
Abrar
What is position?
Amoah Reply
What is law of gravition
sushil Reply
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics for ap® courses. OpenStax CNX. Nov 04, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11844/1.14
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