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W net = W nc + W c , size 12{W rSub { size 8{"net"} } =W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } +W rSub { size 8{c} } } {}

so that

W nc + W c = Δ KE , size 12{W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } +W rSub { size 8{c} } =Δ"KE"} {}

where W nc size 12{W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } } {} is the total work done by all nonconservative forces and W c size 12{W rSub { size 8{c} } } {} is the total work done by all conservative forces.

A person pushing a heavy box up an incline. A force F p applied by the person is shown by a vector pointing up the incline. And frictional force f is shown by a vector pointing down the incline, acting on the box.
A person pushes a crate up a ramp, doing work on the crate. Friction and gravitational force (not shown) also do work on the crate; both forces oppose the person’s push. As the crate is pushed up the ramp, it gains mechanical energy, implying that the work done by the person is greater than the work done by friction.

Consider [link] , in which a person pushes a crate up a ramp and is opposed by friction. As in the previous section, we note that work done by a conservative force comes from a loss of gravitational potential energy, so that W c = Δ PE size 12{W rSub { size 8{c} } = - Δ"PE"} {} . Substituting this equation into the previous one and solving for W nc size 12{W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } } {} gives

W nc = Δ KE + Δ PE. size 12{W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } =Δ"KE"+Δ"PE"} {}

This equation means that the total mechanical energy ( KE + PE ) size 12{ \( "KE + PE" \) } {} changes by exactly the amount of work done by nonconservative forces. In [link] , this is the work done by the person minus the work done by friction. So even if energy is not conserved for the system of interest (such as the crate), we know that an equal amount of work was done to cause the change in total mechanical energy.

We rearrange W nc = Δ KE + Δ PE size 12{W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } =D"KE"+D"PE"} {} to obtain

KE i + PE i + W nc = KE f + PE f . size 12{"KE""" lSub { size 8{i} } +"PE" rSub { size 8{i} } +W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } ="KE""" lSub { size 8{f} } +"PE" rSub { size 8{f} } } {}

This means that the amount of work done by nonconservative forces adds to the mechanical energy of a system. If W nc size 12{W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } } {} is positive, then mechanical energy is increased, such as when the person pushes the crate up the ramp in [link] . If W nc size 12{W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } } {} is negative, then mechanical energy is decreased, such as when the rock hits the ground in [link] (b). If W nc size 12{W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } } {} is zero, then mechanical energy is conserved, and nonconservative forces are balanced. For example, when you push a lawn mower at constant speed on level ground, your work done is removed by the work of friction, and the mower has a constant energy.

Applying energy conservation with nonconservative forces

When no change in potential energy occurs, applying KE i + PE i + W nc = KE f + PE f size 12{"KE""" lSub { size 8{i} } +"PE" rSub { size 8{i} } +W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } ="KE""" lSub { size 8{f} } +"PE" rSub { size 8{f} } } {} amounts to applying the work-energy theorem by setting the change in kinetic energy to be equal to the net work done on the system, which in the most general case includes both conservative and nonconservative forces. But when seeking instead to find a change in total mechanical energy in situations that involve changes in both potential and kinetic energy, the previous equation KE i + PE i + W nc = KE f + PE f size 12{"KE""" lSub { size 8{i} } +"PE" rSub { size 8{i} } +W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } ="KE""" lSub { size 8{f} } +"PE" rSub { size 8{f} } } {} says that you can start by finding the change in mechanical energy that would have resulted from just the conservative forces, including the potential energy changes, and add to it the work done, with the proper sign, by any nonconservative forces involved.

Calculating distance traveled: how far a baseball player slides

Consider the situation shown in [link] , where a baseball player slides to a stop on level ground. Using energy considerations, calculate the distance the 65.0-kg baseball player slides, given that his initial speed is 6.00 m/s and the force of friction against him is a constant 450 N.

A baseball player slides to stop in a distance d. the displacement d is shown by a vector towards the left and frictional force f on the player is shown by a small vector pointing towards the right equal to four hundred and fifty newtons. K E is equal to half m v squared, which is equal to f times d.
The baseball player slides to a stop in a distance d size 12{d} {} . In the process, friction removes the player’s kinetic energy by doing an amount of work fd size 12{ ital "fd"} {} equal to the initial kinetic energy.

Strategy

Friction stops the player by converting his kinetic energy into other forms, including thermal energy. In terms of the work-energy theorem, the work done by friction, which is negative, is added to the initial kinetic energy to reduce it to zero. The work done by friction is negative, because f size 12{f} {} is in the opposite direction of the motion (that is, θ = 180º size 12{q="180"°} {} , and so cos θ = 1 size 12{"cos"θ= - 1} {} ). Thus W nc = fd size 12{W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } = - ital "fd"} {} . The equation simplifies to

1 2 mv i 2 fd = 0 size 12{ { {1} over {2} }  ital "mv" rSub { size 8{i} rSup { size 8{2} } } - ital "fd"=0} {}

or

fd = 1 2 mv i 2 . size 12{ ital "fd"= { {1} over {2} }  ital "mv" rSub { size 8{i} rSup { size 8{2} } } "." } {}

This equation can now be solved for the distance d size 12{d} {} .

Solution

Solving the previous equation for d size 12{d} {} and substituting known values yields

d = mv i 2 2 f = ( 65.0 kg ) ( 6 . 00 m/s ) 2 ( 2 ) ( 450 N ) = 2.60 m. alignl { stack { size 12{d= { { ital "mv" rSub { size 8{i} rSup { size 8{2} } } } over {2f} } } {} #= { { \( "65" "." 0" kg" \) \( 6 "." "00"" m/s" \) rSup { size 8{2} } } over { \( 2 \) \( "450"" N" \) } } {} # " "=" 2" "." "60 m" "." {}} } {}

Discussion

The most important point of this example is that the amount of nonconservative work equals the change in mechanical energy. For example, you must work harder to stop a truck, with its large mechanical energy, than to stop a mosquito.

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Questions & Answers

Give an example (but not one from the text) of a device used to measure time and identify what change in that device indicates a change in time.
David Reply
hour glass, pendulum clock, atomic clock?
S.M
tnks
David
how did they solve for "t" after getting 67.6=.5(Voy + 0)t
Martin Reply
Find the following for path D in [link] : (a) The distance traveled. (b) The magnitude of the displacement from start to finish. (c) The displacement from start to finish.
David Reply
the topic is kinematics
David
can i get notes of solid state physics
Lohitha
just check the chpt. 13 kinetic theory of matter it's there
David
is acceleration a fundamental unit.
David Reply
no it is derived
Abdul
no
Nisha
K thanks
David
hi guys can you teach me how to solve a logarithm?
Villaflor Reply
how about a conceptual framework can you simplify for me? needed please
Villaflor
Hello what happens when electrone stops its rotation around its nucleus if it possible how
Afzal
I think they are constantly moving
Villaflor
yep what is problem you are stuck into context?
S.M
not possible to fix electron position in space,
S.M
Physics
Beatriz
yes of course Villa flor
David
equations of kinematics for constant acceleration
Sagcurse Reply
A bottle full of water weighs 45g when full of mercury,it weighs 360g.if the empty bottle weighs 20g.calculate the relative density of mercury and the density of mercury....pls I need help
Lila Reply
well You know the density of water is 1000kg/m^3.And formula for density is density=mass/volume Then we must calculate volume of bottle and mass of mercury: Volume of bottle is (45-20)/1000000=1/40000 mass of mercury is:(360-20)/1000 kg density of mercury:(340/1000):1/50000=(340•40000):1000=13600
Sobirjon
the latter is true
Sobirjon
100g of water is mixed with 60g of a liquid of relative density 1.2.assuming no changes in volume occurred,find the average relative density of the mixture...take density of water as 1g/cm3 and density of liquid 1.2g/cm3
Lila
plz hu can explain Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
Emmanuel Reply
who can help me with my problem about acceleration?
Vann Reply
ok
Nicholas
how to solve this... a car is heading north then smoothly made a westward turn during the travel the speed of the car remains constant at 1.5km/h what is the acceleration of the car? the total travel time of the car as it smoothly changed its direction is 15 minutes
Vann
i think the acceleration is 0 since the car does not change its speed unless there are other conditions
Ben
yes I have to agree, the key phrase is, "the speed of the car remains constant...," all other information is not needed to conclude that acceleration remains at 0 during the entire time
Luis
who can help me with a relative density question
Lila
1cm3 sample of tin lead alloy has mass 8.5g.the relative density of tin is 7.3 and that of lead is 11.3.calculate the percentage by weight of tin in the alloy. assuming that there is no change of volume when the metals formed the alloy
Lila
morning, what will happen to the volume of an ice block when heat is added from -200°c to 0°c... Will it volume increase or decrease?
adefenwa Reply
no
Emmanuel
hi what is physical education?
Kate
BPED..is my course.
Kate
No
Emmanuel
I think it is neither decreases nor increases ,it remains in the same volume because of its crystal structure
Sobirjon
100g of water is mixed with 60g of a liquid of relative density 1.2.assuming no changes in volume occurred,find the average relative density of the mixture. take density of water as 1g/cm3 and density of liquid as 1.2g/cm3
Lila
Sorry what does it means"no changes in volume occured"?
Sobirjon
volume can be the amount of space occupied by an object. But when an object does not change in shape it will still occupy the same space. Thats why the volume will still remain the same
Ben
Most soilds expand when heated but if it changes state at 0C it will have less volume. Ice floats because it is less dense ie a larger mass per unit volume.
Richard
how to calculate velocity
Okwethu Reply
v=d/t
Emeka
his about the speed?
Villaflor
how about speed
Villaflor
v=d/t
Nisha
hello bro hw is life with you
Jacob Reply
Mine is good. How about you?
Chase
Hi room of engineers
lawan Reply
yes,hi sir
Okwethu
hello
akinmeji
Hello
Mishael
hello
Jerry
hi
Sakhi
hi
H.C
so, what is going on here
akinmeji
u are all wlc just ask your question anybody. can answer
Ajayi
good morning ppl
ABDUL
If someone has not studied Mathematics enough yet, should theu study it first then study Phusics or Study Basics of Physics whilst srudying Math as well?
Riaz Reply
whether u studied maths or not, it is advisable to start from d basics cuz it is essential to know dem
Nuru
yea you are right
Badmus
wow, you got this w/o knowing math
Thomas
I guess that's it
Thomas
later people
Thomas
mathematics is everywhere
Anand
thanks but dat doesn't mean it is good without maths @Riaz....... Maths is essential in sciences particularly wen it comes to PHYSICS but PHYSICS must be started from the basic which may also help in ur mathematical ability
Nuru
A hydrometer of mass 0.15kg and uniform cross sectional area of 0.0025m2 displaced in water of density 1000kg/m3.what depth will the hydrometer sink
Lila
16.66 meters?
Darshik
16.71m2
aways
,i have a question of let me give answer
aways
the mass is stretched a distance of 8cm and held what is the potential energy? quick answer
aways
oscillation is a to and fro movement, it can also be referred to as vibration. e.g loaded string, loaded test tube or an hinged door
Olatunji Reply
Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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