# 6.6 Satellites and kepler’s laws: an argument for simplicity  (Page 4/5)

 Page 4 / 5

A non-satellite body fulfilling only the first two of the above criteria is classified as “dwarf planet.”

In 2006, Pluto was demoted to a ‘dwarf planet’ after scientists revised their definition of what constitutes a “true” planet.

Orbital data and kepler’s third law
Parent Satellite Average orbital radius r (km) Period T(y) r 3 / T 2 (km 3 / y 2 )
Earth Moon $3.84×{\text{10}}^{5}$ 0.07481 $1\text{.}\text{01}×{\text{10}}^{\text{19}}$
Sun Mercury $5\text{.}\text{79}×{\text{10}}^{7}$ 0.2409 $3\text{.}\text{34}×{\text{10}}^{\text{24}}$
Venus $1\text{.}\text{082}×{\text{10}}^{8}$ 0.6150 $3\text{.}\text{35}×{\text{10}}^{\text{24}}$
Earth $1\text{.}\text{496}×{\text{10}}^{8}$ 1.000 $3\text{.}\text{35}×{\text{10}}^{\text{24}}$
Mars $2\text{.}\text{279}×{\text{10}}^{8}$ 1.881 $3\text{.}\text{35}×{\text{10}}^{\text{24}}$
Jupiter $7\text{.}\text{783}×{\text{10}}^{8}$ 11.86 $3\text{.}\text{35}×{\text{10}}^{\text{24}}$
Saturn $1\text{.}\text{427}×{\text{10}}^{9}$ 29.46 $3\text{.}\text{35}×{\text{10}}^{\text{24}}$
Neptune $4\text{.}\text{497}×{\text{10}}^{9}$ 164.8 $3\text{.}\text{35}×{\text{10}}^{\text{24}}$
Pluto $5\text{.}\text{90}×{\text{10}}^{9}$ 248.3 $3\text{.}\text{33}×{\text{10}}^{\text{24}}$
Jupiter Io $4\text{.}\text{22}×{\text{10}}^{5}$ 0.00485 (1.77 d) $3\text{.}\text{19}×{\text{10}}^{\text{21}}$
Europa $6\text{.}\text{71}×{\text{10}}^{5}$ 0.00972 (3.55 d) $3\text{.}\text{20}×{\text{10}}^{\text{21}}$
Ganymede $1\text{.}\text{07}×{\text{10}}^{6}$ 0.0196 (7.16 d) $3\text{.}\text{19}×{\text{10}}^{\text{21}}$
Callisto $1\text{.}\text{88}×{\text{10}}^{6}$ 0.0457 (16.19 d) $3\text{.}\text{20}×{\text{10}}^{\text{21}}$

The universal law of gravitation is a good example of a physical principle that is very broadly applicable. That single equation for the gravitational force describes all situations in which gravity acts. It gives a cause for a vast number of effects, such as the orbits of the planets and moons in the solar system. It epitomizes the underlying unity and simplicity of physics.

Before the discoveries of Kepler, Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, and others, the solar system was thought to revolve around Earth as shown in [link] (a). This is called the Ptolemaic view, for the Greek philosopher who lived in the second century AD. This model is characterized by a list of facts for the motions of planets with no cause and effect explanation. There tended to be a different rule for each heavenly body and a general lack of simplicity.

[link] (b) represents the modern or Copernican model. In this model, a small set of rules and a single underlying force explain not only all motions in the solar system, but all other situations involving gravity. The breadth and simplicity of the laws of physics are compelling. As our knowledge of nature has grown, the basic simplicity of its laws has become ever more evident.

## Section summary

• Kepler’s laws are stated for a small mass $m$ orbiting a larger mass $M$ in near-isolation. Kepler’s laws of planetary motion are then as follows:

Kepler’s first law

The orbit of each planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus.

Kepler’s second law

Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the Sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times.

Kepler’s third law

The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets about the Sun is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the Sun:

where $T$ is the period (time for one orbit) and $r$ is the average radius of the orbit.

• The period and radius of a satellite’s orbit about a larger body $M$ are related by
${T}^{2}=\frac{{4\pi }^{2}}{\text{GM}}{r}^{3}$

or

$\frac{{r}^{3}}{{T}^{2}}=\frac{G}{{4\pi }^{2}}M\text{.}$

What is electric
electric means?
ghulam
a boy cycles continuously through a distance of 1.0km in 5minutes. calculate his average speed in ms-1(meter per second). how do I solve this
speed = distance/time be sure to convert the km to m and minutes to seconds check my utube video "mathwithmrv speed"
PhysicswithMrV
why we cannot use DC instead of AC in a transformer
becuse the d .c cannot travel for long distance trnsmission
ghulam
what is physics
branch of science which deals with matter energy and their relationship between them
ghulam
Life science
the
what is heat and temperature
how does sound affect temperature
sound is directly proportional to the temperature.
juny
how to solve wave question
I would like to know how I am not at all smart when it comes to math. please explain so I can understand. sincerly
Emma
Just know d relationship btw 1)wave length 2)frequency and velocity
Talhatu
First of all, you are smart and you will get it👍🏽... v = f × wavelength see my youtube channel: "mathwithmrv" if you want to know how to rearrange equations using the balance method
PhysicswithMrV
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Beatrax
thanks dear
Chuks
hi pls help me with this question A ball is projected vertically upwards from the top of a tower 60m high with a velocity of 30ms1.what is the maximum height above the ground level?how long does it take to reach the ground level?
mahmoud
please guys help, what is the difference between concave lens and convex lens
convex lens brings rays of light to a focus while concave diverges rays of light
Christian
for mmHg to kPa yes
Matthew
it depends on the size
Vincent
a lens which diverge the ray of light
rinzuala
concave diverges light
Matthew
thank you guys
Vincent
A diverging lens
Yusuf
What is isotope
Yusuf
each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, and hence differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties; in particular, a radioactive form of an element. "some elements have only one stable isotope
Karthi
what is wire wound resistors?
What are the best colleges to go to for physics
I would like to know this too
Trevor
How do I calculate uncertainty in a frequency?
Calculate . ..
Olufunsho
What is light wave
What is wave
Sakeenah
What is light
Sakeenah
okay
True
explain how neurons communicate feed and stimulate
Jeff
Great science students
Omo
A wave is a disturbance which travels through the medium transferring energy from one form to another without causing any permanent displacement of d medium itself
OGOR
Light is a form o wave
OGOR
Neurons communicate by sending message through nerves in coordination
OGOR
What are petrochemicals, give two examples
OGOR
light has dual nature, particle as well as wave. when we want to explain phenomena like Interference of light, then we consider light as wave.
Lalita
what is it as in the form of it or how to visualize it or what it contains
Matthew
particles of light are like small packets of energy called photons, and flow or motion of photons is wave like
Lalita
light is just the energy of which photons emit
Matthew
the wave is how they travel
Matthew
photons do not emitt energy, they are energy. They are massless particles.
Lalita
a wave is a disturbance through the medium. Have you ever thrown a stone in still water? the disturbance produced travels in form of wave, the wave produced by throwing stone in still water are circular in nature.
Lalita
a photon does contain mass when in motion. it doesnt contain mass when at rest
Matthew
when would it ever be at rest
Bob
a wave is a disturbance of which energy travels
Matthew
that's darkness. darkness has no mass because the photons within in aren't moving or producing energy
Matthew
Hi guys. Please I've been trying to understand the concept of SHM, but it's not been really easy, could someone please explain it to me or suggest a site I could visit? Thank you.
Odo
Matthew
effective mass of photons only comes into picture when we consider it accelerating in gravitational field, mass of photon has no meaning as it is always travelling with speed of light and is never at rest. with that high speed, Energy and momentum are equivalent. and darkness is absense of photons.
Lalita
darkness is absense of light. not the presence of 'resting photons'. photons are never at rest.
Lalita
photons are present in darkness but don't give off any light because they are stationary with no mass or energy. once a force makes them move again they will gain mass and give off light
Matthew
this theory is presented in Einsteins theory of special relativity
Matthew
A.The velocity Vo for the streamline flow of liquid in a small tube depends on the radius r of the tube,the density and the viscosity iter of the liquid .use the dimensional analysis to obtain an expression for the velocity . B.Given that Vo =r square ×p all over 4×iter ×l
True
A.The velocity Vo for the streamline flow of liquid in a small tube depends on the radius r of the tube,the density (rho)and the viscosity (iter)of the liquid. Use the method of dimensional analysis to obtain an expression for the velocity . B.Given that Vo =r square x p all over 4 x iter x l
True
Matthew, photons ARE light. there is no such thing as a photon that isn't moving. in fact the speed they move at is called C (for constant) in physics. through a vacuum they always travel at this speed no matter what. they can not slow down; except in another medium.
The reason why a photon can go at this speed is BECAUSE it had no mass. nothing can go this speed or faster because it needs to have no mass or negative mass. that's why it's called the constant.
when a photon hits something that is opaque, this is the only way to "stop"it. it isn't merely stopped but absorbed and turned into heat energy, then the remaining energy is reflected in different wavelengths. that reflection is what we call color. the darker something is, the less photons are ther
e. complete blackness is the absolute absence of photons altogether. I believe what you're referring to is not speed, but wavelength, which is indirectly proportional to the amount of energy a particular photon is made up of.
in order for a photon to have zero wavelength, it must (at least theoretically) have infinite energy.
about mass: you may have photons confused with electrons. elections have a mass so small that people say they are without mass, but they do. it is called electron mass or Me-.
you may also be getting electrons and photons confused because of the cherenkov effect. that is what happens when a particle travels faster than light IN THAT PARTICULAR MEDIUM. I emphasize that because no other particle besides photons can go the speed of c.
when a particle goes faster than light in a particular medium, a blue light is emitted, called cherenkov radiation. this is why nuclear reactors glow blue.
nuclear reactors release so much energy that when they emit electrons, those electrons are given enough energy to go faster than light in that medium (in this case water), releasing blue light. if you put the reactor in air or a vacuum, this effect wouldn't happen because the speed of light in air
is very close to c, which is the universal speed limit. I'd you did go faster than c, time would go backwards and you would have infinite theoretical mass and probably spagghettify, like with a black hole.
*if
*electrons
light waves can travel through a vacuum, and do not require a medium. In empty space, the wave does not dissipate (grow smaller) no matter how far it travels, because the wave is not interacting with anything else.
Salim
Please is there any instructional material for sounds Waves, Echo, light waves
Salami
how far there is hot topic that is boarding me now
Abraham
linear motion
Ahmed
kinematic
Abraham
Akinsanya
kinematic
Emma
kinematics disscuss the motion without cuases ...
ghulam
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Godslight
How does the Geiger tube works
pls he do we find for tension
tension is equal to the weight of the object. so for example if something weighs 45 Newtons then the tension in the Rope holding it is 45 Newtons. and because it is in equilibrium if the object is 45N and there are three ropes holding it there would be 15 N of tension in each to equal the weight
Shii
does that work for you?
Shii
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Belinda
very correct
Kudzy