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The image shows a table-top-sized electrical machine. It has a cubic base out of which comes a clear vertical tube about half-a-meter long. Inside the tube a conveyer belt is seen running up and down the tube. On top of the tube is a metallic sphere maybe thirty centimeters in diameter.
An artist’s rendition of a Van de Graaff generator.
The image shows a disc-shaped cyclotron consisting of two horizontal semicircular plates that are separated by a gap. An alternating voltage is put across the gap, and an electric field is shown going from the left semicircular plate across the gap to the right semicircular plate. A magnetic field pierces the plates from top to bottom. A dotted line labeled external beam spirals outward from the center of the cyclotron, making four revolutions inside the semicircular plates before reaching the outer edge of the cyclotron.
Cyclotrons use a magnetic field to cause particles to move in circular orbits. As the particles pass between the plates of the Ds, the voltage across the gap is oscillated to accelerate them twice in each orbit.

Modern behemoths and colliding beams

Physicists have built ever-larger machines, first to reduce the wavelength of the probe and obtain greater detail, then to put greater energy into collisions to create new particles. Each major energy increase brought new information, sometimes producing spectacular progress, motivating the next step. One major innovation was driven by the desire to create more massive particles. Since momentum needs to be conserved in a collision, the particles created by a beam hitting a stationary target should recoil. This means that part of the energy input goes into recoil kinetic energy, significantly limiting the fraction of the beam energy that can be converted into new particles. One solution to this problem is to have head-on collisions between particles moving in opposite directions. Colliding beams are made to meet head-on at points where massive detectors are located. Since the total incoming momentum is zero, it is possible to create particles with momenta and kinetic energies near zero. Particles with masses equivalent to twice the beam energy can thus be created. Another innovation is to create the antimatter counterpart of the beam particle, which thus has the opposite charge and circulates in the opposite direction in the same beam pipe. For a schematic representation, see [link] .

The first image shows a circular ring made up of about thirty blue tubes whose diameters are much less than the diameter of the ring. The tubes are arranged end-to-end, so that a line joining their axes forms the ring. The second image shows a close-up view of three consecutive tubes, which we shall call tubes one, two, and three. Tube one is labeled plus, tube two is labeled minus, and tube three is labeled plus. An arrow labeled E points from tube one to tube two, and between these two tubes is a sphere labeled p plus. The third image is the same as the second, except that the tubes one, two, and three are labeled minus, plus, minus, respectively. In addition, the arrow labeled E between tubes one and two has reversed direction, and a second arrow labeled E now appears pointing from tube two to tube three. Between tubes two and three appears the sphere labeled p plus.
(a) A synchrotron has a ring of magnets and accelerating tubes. The frequency of the accelerating voltages is increased to cause the beam particles to travel the same distance in shorter time. The magnetic field should also be increased to keep each beam burst traveling in a fixed-radius path. Limits on magnetic field strength require these machines to be very large in order to accelerate particles to very high energies. (b) A positive particle is shown in the gap between accelerating tubes. (c) While the particle passes through the tube, the potentials are reversed so that there is another acceleration at the next gap. The frequency of the reversals needs to be varied as the particle is accelerated to achieve successive accelerations in each gap.

On the left side of the image is a pair of equal-diameter, horizontal rings, with one labeled proton source and the other labeled anti proton source. The rings look like they are made of a hose; that is, their cross section is circular and they appear hollow. In the proton-source ring blue arrows appear indicating counterclockwise motion inside the hose. In the anti-proton-source ring, red arrows appear indicating clockwise motion inside the hose. A section of hose tangentially leaves each ring to tangentially join another larger ring to the right, which is labeled main ring. Both blue arrows and red arrows appear in the main ring, indicating simultaneous clockwise and counterclockwise motion. From the main ring two tangential hose sections exit to join a similar-sized ring situated beneath the main ring and that is labeled tevatron ring. In the tevatron ring, the blue arrows go half-way around clockwise and the red arrows go half-way around counterclockwise. They meet in a cube labeled collision detector and that has a yellow starburst icon on it.
This schematic shows the two rings of Fermilab’s accelerator and the scheme for colliding protons and antiprotons (not to scale).

Detectors capable of finding the new particles in the spray of material that emerges from colliding beams are as impressive as the accelerators. While the Fermilab Tevatron had proton and antiproton beam energies of about 1 TeV, so that it can create particles up to 2 TeV/ c 2 size 12{2`"TeV/"c rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) has achieved beam energies of 3.5 TeV, so that it has a 7-TeV collision energy; CERN hopes to double the beam energy in 2014. The now-canceled Superconducting Super Collider was being constructed in Texas with a design energy of 20 TeV to give a 40-TeV collision energy. It was to be an oval 30 km in diameter. Its cost as well as the politics of international research funding led to its demise.

Questions & Answers

hello friends what is hadronic heating systems
Rabilu Reply
Hydronics is the use of a liquid heat-transfer medium in heating and cooling systems. 
Balogun
what is mass
Victor Reply
is the amount of an object
Sendawula
mass is the measure of the inertia of a body
Ishmeal
advantages of CRO over ordinary voltmeter
Dismas Reply
what is the difference between displacement and distance?!
Daniel Reply
what is equilibrium
Sade Reply
If a system is said to be under equilibrium whenever there is no force act upon it... And it remain in its initial stage..
soniya
what is velocity
Ahmed
time rate of displacement of a body is called velocity
muhammad
velocity is the gradient of acceleration time graph
Etana
actually equilibrium is when a body is in total balance where in no external force is acting on it. Or the forces on the left hand side equal those on the left hand side and downward forces equal upward forces & anticlockwise moment equal clockwise moment about the same point.
Etana
I mean left hand side and right hand side
Etana
What is conductivity
Saud Reply
It is the ease with which electrical charges or heat can be transmitted through a material or a solution.
Cffrrcvccgg
how to find magnitude and direction
Arjune Reply
how to caclculate for speed
Arjune
derivation of ohms law
Kazeem Reply
derivation of resistance
Kazeem
R=v/I where R=resistor, v=voltage, I=current
Kazeem
magnitude
Arjune
A puck is moving on an air hockey table. Relative to an x, y coordinate system at time t 0 s, the x components of the puck’s ini￾tial velocity and acceleration are v0x 1.0 m/s and ax 2.0 m/s2 . The y components of the puck’s initial velocity and acceleration are v0y 2.0 m/s and ay 2.0
Arjune
Electric current is the flow of electrons
Kelly Reply
is there really flow of electrons exist?
babar
Yes It exists
Cffrrcvccgg
explain plz how electrons flow
babar
if electron flows from where first come and end the first one
babar
an electron will flow accross a conductor because or when it posseses kinectic energy
Cffrrcvccgg
electron can not flow jist trasmit electrical energy
ghulam
free electrons of conductor
ankita
electric means the flow heat current.
Serah Reply
electric means the flow of heat current in a circuit.
Serah
What is electric
Manasseh Reply
electric means?
ghulam
electric means the flow of heat current in a circuit.
Serah
electric means the flow of electric current through conductor
Sade
the continuos flow of electrons in a circuit is called electric
ANUBHA
electric means charge
ghulam
electric means current
Sade
flow of current.
Sendawula
a boy cycles continuously through a distance of 1.0km in 5minutes. calculate his average speed in ms-1(meter per second). how do I solve this
Jenny Reply
speed = distance/time be sure to convert the km to m and minutes to seconds check my utube video "mathwithmrv speed"
PhysicswithMrV
d=1.0km÷1000=0.001 t=5×60=300s s=d\t s=0.001/300=0.0000033m\s
Serah
A puck is moving on an air hockey table. Relative to an x, y coordinate system at time t 0 s, the x components of the puck’s ini￾tial velocity and acceleration are v0x 1.0 m/s and ax 2.0 m/s2 . The y components of the puck’s initial velocity and acceleration are v0y 2.0 m/s and ay 2.0
Arjune
D=1km=1000m t=5mins×60secs=300sec s=d/t=3.333m/s
Daniel
I think Daniel Glorious is ryt
Amalia
why we cannot use DC instead of AC in a transformer
kusshaf Reply
becuse the d .c cannot travel for long distance trnsmission
ghulam
what is physics
Chiwetalu Reply
branch of science which deals with matter energy and their relationship between them
ghulam
Life science
the
what is heat and temperature
Kazeem Reply
Practice Key Terms 6

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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