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Several spiral tracks of a CD are shown on which a laser beam is incident. An enlarged view of part of the tracks on the CD surface are shown. The track consists of a sequence of short or long pits, with the space between pits being labeled as land. Finally, an enlarged view of a single pit is shown with depth labeled as t.
A CD has digital information stored in the form of laser-created pits on its surface. These in turn can be read by detecting the laser light scattered from the pit. Large information capacity is possible because of the precision of the laser. Shorter-wavelength lasers enable greater storage capacity.

Holograms, such as those in [link] , are true three-dimensional images recorded on film by lasers. Holograms are used for amusement, decoration on novelty items and magazine covers, security on credit cards and driver’s licenses (a laser and other equipment is needed to reproduce them), and for serious three-dimensional information storage. You can see that a hologram is a true three-dimensional image, because objects change relative position in the image when viewed from different angles.

The image shows a rainbow-colored hologram of a bird on a credit card.
Credit cards commonly have holograms for logos, making them difficult to reproduce (credit: Dominic Alves, Flickr)

The name hologram    means “entire picture” (from the Greek holo , as in holistic), because the image is three-dimensional. Holography is the process of producing holograms and, although they are recorded on photographic film, the process is quite different from normal photography. Holography uses light interference or wave optics, whereas normal photography uses geometric optics. [link] shows one method of producing a hologram. Coherent light from a laser is split by a mirror, with part of the light illuminating the object. The remainder, called the reference beam, shines directly on a piece of film. Light scattered from the object interferes with the reference beam, producing constructive and destructive interference. As a result, the exposed film looks foggy, but close examination reveals a complicated interference pattern stored on it. Where the interference was constructive, the film (a negative actually) is darkened. Holography is sometimes called lensless photography, because it uses the wave characteristics of light as contrasted to normal photography, which uses geometric optics and so requires lenses.

The schematic representation shows that coherent light from a laser is incident on an object which is a dinosaur and also on a tilted mirror, which reflects the light at an angle. Then, the reflected light from the mirror and the reflected object wave fall on a photo plate simultaneously.
Production of a hologram. Single-wavelength coherent light from a laser produces a well-defined interference pattern on a piece of film. The laser beam is split by a partially silvered mirror, with part of the light illuminating the object and the remainder shining directly on the film.

Light falling on a hologram can form a three-dimensional image. The process is complicated in detail, but the basics can be understood as shown in [link] , in which a laser of the same type that exposed the film is now used to illuminate it. The myriad tiny exposed regions of the film are dark and block the light, while less exposed regions allow light to pass. The film thus acts much like a collection of diffraction gratings with various spacings. Light passing through the hologram is diffracted in various directions, producing both real and virtual images of the object used to expose the film. The interference pattern is the same as that produced by the object. Moving your eye to various places in the interference pattern gives you different perspectives, just as looking directly at the object would. The image thus looks like the object and is three-dimensional like the object.

Questions & Answers

what is temperature
Adeleye Reply
temperature is the measure of degree of hotness or coldness of a body. measured in kelvin
a characteristic which tells hotness or coldness of a body
Average kinetic energy of an object
average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
A measure of the quantity of heat contained in an object which arises from the average kinetic energy of the constituent particles of that object. It can be measured using thermometers. It has a unit of kelvin in the thermodynamic scale and degree Celsius in the Celsius scale.
Mass of air bubble in material medium is negative. why?
Hrithik Reply
a car move 6m. what is the acceleration?
Umaru Reply
depends how long
What is the simplest explanation on the difference of principle, law and a theory
Kym Reply
how did the value of gravitational constant came give me the explanation
Varun Reply
how did the value of gravitational constant 6.67×10°-11Nm2kg-2
A steel ball is dropped onto a hard floor from a height of 1.50 m and rebounds to a height of 1.45 m. (a) Calculate its velocity just before it strikes the floor.
Kris Reply
0.5m* mate.
0.05 I meant.
Guess your solution is correct considering the ball fall from 1.5m height initially.
How can we compare different combinations of capacitors?
Prakash Reply
find the dimension of acceleration if it's unit is ms-2
Happiness Reply
b=-2 ,a =1
M^0 L^1T^-2
what is botany
it is a branch of science which deal with the study of plants animals and environment
what is work
Sunday Reply
a boy moving with an initial velocity of 2m\s and finally canes to rest with a velocity of 3m\s square at times 10se calculate it acceleration
6.6 lol 😁😁
show ur work
sorry..the answer is -10
your question is wrong
If the boy is coming to rest then how the hell will his final velocity be 3 it'll be zero
re-write the question
men i -10 isn't correct.
using v=u + at
ya..1/10 is very correct..
how did the value 6.67×10°-11Nm2kg2 came tell me please
Work is the product of force and distance
what is longitudinal wave
Badmus Reply
A longitudinal wave is wave which moves parallel or along the direction of propagation.
longitudinal wave in liquid is square root of bulk of modulus by density of liquid
Is British mathematical units the same as the United States units?(like inches, cm, ext.)
Nina Reply
We use SI units: kg, m etc but the US sometimes refer to inches etc as British units even though we no longer use them.
Thanks, just what I needed to know.
What is the advantage of a diffraction grating over a double slit in dispersing light into a spectrum?
Uditha Reply
can I ask questions?
Boniface Reply
hello guys
when you will ask the question
anybody can ask here
is free energy possible with magnets?
you could construct an aparatus that might have a slightly higher 'energy profit' than energy used, but you would havw to maintain the machine, and most likely keep it in a vacuum, for no air resistance, and cool it, so chances are quite slim.
calculate the force, p, required to just make a 6kg object move along the horizontal surface where the coefficient of friction is 0.25
Yes ask
if a man travel 7km 30degree east of North then 10km east find the resultant displacement
Ajali Reply
disagree. Displacement is the hypotenuse length of the final position to the starting position. Find x,y components of each leg of journey to determine final position, then use final components to calculate the displacement.
1.The giant star Betelgeuse emits radiant energy at a rate of 10exponent4 times greater than our sun, where as it surface temperature is only half (2900k) that of our sun. Estimate the radius of Betelgeuse assuming e=1, the sun's radius is s=7*10exponent8metres
James Reply
2. A ceramic teapot (e=0.20) and a shiny one (e=0.10), each hold 0.25 l of at 95degrees. A. Estimate the temperature rate of heat loss from each B. Estimate the temperature drop after 30mins for each. Consider only radiation and assume the surrounding at 20degrees

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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