30.3 Bohr’s theory of the hydrogen atom  (Page 7/14)

 Page 7 / 14

Explain how Bohr’s rule for the quantization of electron orbital angular momentum differs from the actual rule.

What is a hydrogen-like atom, and how are the energies and radii of its electron orbits related to those in hydrogen?

Problems&Exercises

By calculating its wavelength, show that the first line in the Lyman series is UV radiation.

$\frac{1}{\lambda }=R\left(\frac{1}{{n}_{\text{f}}^{2}}-\frac{1}{{n}_{\text{i}}^{2}}\right)⇒\lambda =\frac{1}{R}\left[\frac{\left({n}_{\text{i}}\cdot {n}_{\text{f}}{\right)}^{2}}{{n}_{\text{i}}^{2}-{n}_{\text{f}}^{2}}\right];\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{n}_{\text{i}}=2,\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{n}_{\text{f}}=1,\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}$ so that

$\lambda =\left(\frac{m}{1.097×{\text{10}}^{7}}\right)\left[\frac{\left(2×1{\right)}^{2}}{{2}^{2}-{1}^{2}}\right]=1\text{.}\text{22}×{\text{10}}^{-7}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}=\text{122 nm}$ , which is UV radiation.

Find the wavelength of the third line in the Lyman series, and identify the type of EM radiation.

Look up the values of the quantities in ${a}_{\text{B}}=\frac{{h}^{2}}{{4\pi }^{2}{m}_{e}{\text{kq}}_{e}^{2}}{}^{}$ , and verify that the Bohr radius ${a}_{\text{B}}$ is $\text{0.529}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{10}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$ .

${a}_{\text{B}}=\frac{{h}^{2}}{{4\pi }^{2}{m}_{e}{\text{kZq}}_{e}^{2}}=\frac{\left(\text{6.626}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{34}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J·s}{\right)}^{2}}{{4\pi }^{2}\left(9.109×{\text{10}}^{-\text{31}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}\right)\left(8.988×{\text{10}}^{9}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N}\text{·}{\text{m}}^{2}/{C}^{2}\right)\left(1\right)\left(1.602×{\text{10}}^{-\text{19}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{C}{\right)}^{2}}=\text{0.529}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{10}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$

Verify that the ground state energy ${E}_{0}$ is 13.6 eV by using ${E}_{0}=\frac{{2\pi }^{2}{q}_{e}^{4}{m}_{e}{k}^{2}}{{h}^{2}}\text{.}$

If a hydrogen atom has its electron in the $n=4$ state, how much energy in eV is needed to ionize it?

0.850 eV

A hydrogen atom in an excited state can be ionized with less energy than when it is in its ground state. What is $n$ for a hydrogen atom if 0.850 eV of energy can ionize it?

Find the radius of a hydrogen atom in the $n=2$ state according to Bohr’s theory.

$\text{2.12}×{\text{10}}^{\text{–10}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$

Show that $\left(13.6 eV\right)/\text{hc}=\text{1.097}×{\text{10}}^{7}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}=R$ (Rydberg’s constant), as discussed in the text.

What is the smallest-wavelength line in the Balmer series? Is it in the visible part of the spectrum?

365 nm

It is in the ultraviolet.

Show that the entire Paschen series is in the infrared part of the spectrum. To do this, you only need to calculate the shortest wavelength in the series.

Do the Balmer and Lyman series overlap? To answer this, calculate the shortest-wavelength Balmer line and the longest-wavelength Lyman line.

No overlap

365 nm

122 nm

(a) Which line in the Balmer series is the first one in the UV part of the spectrum?

(b) How many Balmer series lines are in the visible part of the spectrum?

(c) How many are in the UV?

A wavelength of $4\text{.}\text{653 μm}$ is observed in a hydrogen spectrum for a transition that ends in the ${n}_{\text{f}}=5$ level. What was ${n}_{\text{i}}$ for the initial level of the electron?

7

A singly ionized helium ion has only one electron and is denoted ${\text{He}}^{+}$ . What is the ion’s radius in the ground state compared to the Bohr radius of hydrogen atom?

A beryllium ion with a single electron (denoted ${\text{Be}}^{3+}$ ) is in an excited state with radius the same as that of the ground state of hydrogen.

(a) What is $n$ for the ${\text{Be}}^{3+}$ ion?

(b) How much energy in eV is needed to ionize the ion from this excited state?

(a) 2

(b) 54.4 eV

Atoms can be ionized by thermal collisions, such as at the high temperatures found in the solar corona. One such ion is ${C}^{+5}$ , a carbon atom with only a single electron.

(a) By what factor are the energies of its hydrogen-like levels greater than those of hydrogen?

(b) What is the wavelength of the first line in this ion’s Paschen series?

(c) What type of EM radiation is this?

Verify Equations ${r}_{n}=\frac{{n}^{2}}{Z}{a}_{\text{B}}$ and ${a}_{B}=\frac{{h}^{2}}{{4\pi }^{2}{m}_{e}{\text{kq}}_{e}^{2}}=\text{0.529}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{10}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$ using the approach stated in the text. That is, equate the Coulomb and centripetal forces and then insert an expression for velocity from the condition for angular momentum quantization.

$\frac{{\text{kZq}}_{e}^{2}}{{r}_{n}^{2}}=\frac{{m}_{e}{V}^{2}}{{r}_{n}}\text{,}$ so that ${r}_{n}=\frac{{\text{kZq}}_{e}^{2}}{{m}_{e}{V}^{2}}=\frac{{\text{kZq}}_{e}^{2}}{{m}_{e}}\frac{1}{{V}^{2}}\text{.}$ From the equation ${m}_{e}{\text{vr}}_{n}=n\frac{h}{2\pi }\text{,}$ we can substitute for the velocity, giving: ${r}_{n}=\frac{{\text{kZq}}_{e}^{2}}{{m}_{e}}\cdot \frac{{4\pi }^{2}{m}_{e}^{2}{r}_{n}^{2}}{{n}^{2}{h}^{2}}$ so that ${r}_{n}=\frac{{n}^{2}}{Z}\frac{{h}^{2}}{{4\pi }^{2}{m}_{e}{\text{kq}}_{e}^{2}}=\frac{{n}^{2}}{Z}{a}_{\text{B}},$ where ${a}_{\text{B}}=\frac{{h}^{2}}{{4\pi }^{2}{m}_{e}{\text{kq}}_{e}^{2}}$ .

The wavelength of the four Balmer series lines for hydrogen are found to be 410.3, 434.2, 486.3, and 656.5 nm. What average percentage difference is found between these wavelength numbers and those predicted by $\frac{1}{\lambda }=R\left(\frac{1}{{n}_{\text{f}}^{2}}-\frac{1}{{n}_{\text{i}}^{2}}\right)$ ? It is amazing how well a simple formula (disconnected originally from theory) could duplicate this phenomenon.

explain how a body becomes electrically charged based on the presence of charged particles
induction
babar
what are the calculations of Newton's third law of motiow
what is dark matter
(in some cosmological theories) non-luminous material which is postulated to exist in space and which could take either of two forms: weakly interacting particles ( cold dark matter ) or high-energy randomly moving particles created soon after the Big Bang ( hot dark matter ).
Usman
if the mass of a trolley is 0.1kg. calculate the weight of plasticine that is needed to compensate friction. (take g=10m/s and u=0.2)
what is a galaxy
what isflow rate of volume
flow rate is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time;
Rev
flow rate or discharge represnts the flow passing in unit volume per unit time
bhat
When two charges q1 and q2 are 6 and 5 coulomb what is ratio of force
When reducing the mass of a racing bike, the greatest benefit is realized from reducing the mass of the tires and wheel rims. Why does this allow a racer to achieve greater accelerations than would an identical reduction in the mass of the bicycle’s frame?
nehemiah
why is it proportional
i don't know
y
nehemiah
what are the relationship between distance and displacement
They are interchangeable.
Shii
Distance is scalar, displacement is vector because it must involve a direction as well as a magnitude. distance is the measurement of where you are and where you were displacement is a measurement of the change in position
Shii
Thanks a lot
Usman
I'm beginner in physics so I can't reason why v=u+at change to v2=u2+2as and vice versa
Usman
what is kinematics
praveen
kinematics is study of motion without considering the causes of the motion
Theo
The study of motion without considering the cause 0f it
Usman
why electrons close to the nucleus have less energy and why do electrons far from the nucleus have more energy
Theo
thank you frds
praveen
plz what is the third law of thermodynamics
third law of thermodynamics states that at 0k the particles will collalse its also known as death of universe it was framed at that time when it waa nt posible to reach 0k but it was proved wrong
bhat
I have not try that experiment but I think it will magnet....
Hey Rev. it will
Jeff
I do think so, it will
Chidera
yes it will
lasisi
If a magnet is in a pool of water, would it be able to have a magnetic field?.
yes Stella it would
Jeff
formula for electric current
Fokoua
what are you given?
Kudzy
what is current
Fokoua
I=q/t
saifullahi
Current is the flow of electric charge per unit time.
saifullahi
What are semi conductors
saifullahi
materials that allows charge to flow at varying conditions, temperature for instance.
Mokua
these are materials which have electrical conductivity greater than the insulators but less than metal, in these materials energy band Gap is very narrow as compared to insulators
Sunil
materials that allows charge to flow at varying conditions, temperature for instance.
Obasi
wao so awesome
Fokoua
At what point in the oscillation of beam will a body leave it?
Atambiri
what is gravitational force
what is meant by the term law