# 21.2 Electromotive force: terminal voltage  (Page 5/12)

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But if the cells oppose one another, such as when one is put into an appliance backward, the total emf is less, since it is the algebraic sum of the individual emfs.

A battery is a multiple connection of voltaic cells, as shown in [link] . The disadvantage of series connections of cells is that their internal resistances add. One of the authors once owned a 1957 MGA that had two 6-V batteries in series, rather than a single 12-V battery. This arrangement produced a large internal resistance that caused him many problems in starting the engine.

If the series connection of two voltage sources is made into a complete circuit with the emfs in opposition, then a current of magnitude $I=\frac{\left({\text{emf}}_{1}–{\text{emf}}_{2}\right)}{{r}_{1}+\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{r}_{2}}$ flows. See [link] , for example, which shows a circuit exactly analogous to the battery charger discussed above. If two voltage sources in series with emfs in the same sense are connected to a load ${R}_{\text{load}}$ , as in [link] , then $I=\frac{\left({\text{emf}}_{1}+\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{emf}}_{2}\right)}{{r}_{1}+\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{r}_{2}+{R}_{\text{load}}}$ flows.

## Take-home experiment: flashlight batteries

Find a flashlight that uses several batteries and find new and old batteries. Based on the discussions in this module, predict the brightness of the flashlight when different combinations of batteries are used. Do your predictions match what you observe? Now place new batteries in the flashlight and leave the flashlight switched on for several hours. Is the flashlight still quite bright? Do the same with the old batteries. Is the flashlight as bright when left on for the same length of time with old and new batteries? What does this say for the case when you are limited in the number of available new batteries?

[link] shows two voltage sources with identical emfs in parallel and connected to a load resistance. In this simple case, the total emf is the same as the individual emfs. But the total internal resistance is reduced, since the internal resistances are in parallel. The parallel connection thus can produce a larger current.

#### Questions & Answers

what is thermo electric thermometer
Undie Reply
Who can help me with dynamics?
ivan Reply
radiation amuses mee....
pau Reply
can someone enumerate the First and second law of thermodynamics
oladele Reply
Good
Abdul Reply
radiation of phones kept amazing me
Okugbesan Reply
f=m(v-u)/t
Adeleke Reply
I understand light is a range of wavelenghts from em spectrum, but Where do photons come from in particular, how it is emitted from the sun?
Ian Reply
F=ma
pierre Reply
please what is the formula for calculating Newton second law of motion?
Ogodo Reply
what is emotion
Lilian Reply
properties of transverse waves
Abiodun Reply
is visible light electromagnetic wave?
akash Reply
Visible light is a range of wavelengths within the electro magnetic spectrum.
Robert
It is electro magnetic radiation from the sun.
Robert
please what is the formula for coefficient of kinetic friction
Seyi Reply
What is work
Sunbomustaphar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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