21.2 Electromotive force: terminal voltage  (Page 3/12)

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Why are the chemicals able to produce a unique potential difference? Quantum mechanical descriptions of molecules, which take into account the types of atoms and numbers of electrons in them, are able to predict the energy states they can have and the energies of reactions between them.

In the case of a lead-acid battery, an energy of 2 eV is given to each electron sent to the anode. Voltage is defined as the electrical potential energy divided by charge: $V=\frac{{P}_{\text{E}}}{q}$ . An electron volt is the energy given to a single electron by a voltage of 1 V. So the voltage here is 2 V, since 2 eV is given to each electron. It is the energy produced in each molecular reaction that produces the voltage. A different reaction produces a different energy and, hence, a different voltage.

Terminal voltage

The voltage output of a device is measured across its terminals and, thus, is called its terminal voltage     $\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}V$ . Terminal voltage is given by

$V=\text{emf}-\text{Ir},$

where $r$ is the internal resistance and $I$ is the current flowing at the time of the measurement.

$I$ is positive if current flows away from the positive terminal, as shown in [link] . You can see that the larger the current, the smaller the terminal voltage. And it is likewise true that the larger the internal resistance, the smaller the terminal voltage.

Suppose a load resistance ${R}_{\text{load}}$ is connected to a voltage source, as in [link] . Since the resistances are in series, the total resistance in the circuit is ${R}_{\text{load}}+r$ . Thus the current is given by Ohm’s law to be

$I=\frac{\text{emf}}{{R}_{\text{load}}+r}.$

We see from this expression that the smaller the internal resistance $r$ , the greater the current the voltage source supplies to its load ${R}_{\text{load}}$ . As batteries are depleted, $r$ increases. If $r$ becomes a significant fraction of the load resistance, then the current is significantly reduced, as the following example illustrates.

Calculating terminal voltage, power dissipation, current, and resistance: terminal voltage and load

A certain battery has a 12.0-V emf and an internal resistance of $0\text{.}\text{100}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\Omega$ . (a) Calculate its terminal voltage when connected to a $\text{10.0-}\Omega$ load. (b) What is the terminal voltage when connected to a $0\text{.}\text{500-}\Omega$ load? (c) What power does the $0\text{.}\text{500-}\Omega$ load dissipate? (d) If the internal resistance grows to $0\text{.}\text{500}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\Omega$ , find the current, terminal voltage, and power dissipated by a $0\text{.}\text{500-}\Omega$ load.

Strategy

The analysis above gave an expression for current when internal resistance is taken into account. Once the current is found, the terminal voltage can be calculated using the equation $V=\text{emf}-\text{Ir}$ . Once current is found, the power dissipated by a resistor can also be found.

Solution for (a)

Entering the given values for the emf, load resistance, and internal resistance into the expression above yields

$I=\frac{\text{emf}}{{R}_{\text{load}}+r}=\frac{\text{12}\text{.}0\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{V}}{\text{10}\text{.}\text{1}\phantom{\rule{0.15em}{0ex}}\Omega }=1\text{.}\text{188}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{A}.$

Enter the known values into the equation $V=\text{emf}-\text{Ir}$ to get the terminal voltage:

can a given total amount of mechanical energy be totally converted into heat energy..if so give example
human running
Emmanuel
what is the fumula for calculating specific heat capacity, fusion,fission and vaporization?
Q=cm(∆t)
Emmanuel
Q=cm∆T
what is difference b/w vaporization and evaporation
evaporation is the process of extracting moisture while vaporization is process of becoming a vapor or gas
Emmanuel
From a molecular standpoint they are both cooling processes. Also, you may want to explore states of matter😊 #myTwoCents ~Shi~
Shii
cooling is a similarlity in both process I am confused in difference
1- Evaporation is a process where a liquid change to gas without reaching its boiling point. 2- Vaporization is a process where a liquid change to gas after reaching its boiling point. 3- Sublimation is a process where a solid changes into vapour without passing through a liquid state
Victor
I see. Evaporation is a type of vaporization, that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point. hope that aids
Shii
vaporisation is cooling process while vaporization is heating process
Emmanuel
I mean to write evaporation is an heating process while vaporization is cooling process
Emmanuel
Yea here are two applications. 1- your wet washed clothes dry under the sun, the water EVAPORATES 2- when u are cooking, it reaches a point where u need to add more water because the water you added previously is getting dried. this is VAPORIZATION. Am not sure which is a cooling or heating process
Victor
vaporization occur only when the evaporation get to level where the above cloud is been (saturated) so cooling take place and started to change to liquid (eg rain fall)
Emmanuel
They are both properties of the same process so they're both cooling
Shii
what about sublimation? cooling or heating process?
Victor
exact
evaporation is the increase in kinetic energy of the liquid which can be gone by adding heat
Emmanuel
so its an heating process
Emmanuel
sublimation is when a solid change to gas
Emmanuel
evaporation is very definitely a cooling process. respectfully@Emmanuel when liquid turns to gas it requires more energy from its surroundings, this energy is in the form of heat, and when heat energy leaves the evaporating liquid it leaves it cooler. Thus, cooling process.
Shii
.
Shii
evaporation is very definitely a cooling process. respectfully@Emmanuel
Shii
kk
Emmanuel
You're right @Shi. I get your point
Victor
eascape velocity on the surface of Earth is 11.2 kms-1 the escape velocity on the surface of another planet of same mass as that of Earth but of 1/4 times of radius of Earth is a5.6kms-1 b11.2 kms-1 c22.4kms-1 d5.6ms-1
Emm.. is that a question? or..
Victor
it is McQ
a)5.6km/s
Alvis
c= Q/cm◇T
A.d
units...
Shii
vital
Shii
the time period of the artificial satellite is given by ?
raza
Why is there no 2nd harmonic in the classical electron orbit?
how to reform magnet after been demagneted
A petrol engine has a output of 20 kilowatts and uses 4.5 kg of fuel for each hour of running. The energy given out when 1 kg of petrol is burnt is 4.8 × 10 to the power of 7 Joules. a) What is the energy output of the engine every hour? b) What is the energy input of the engine every hour?
Issac Newton devised a genius way to calculate changing quantities...
Shii
what is the error during taking work done of a body..
what kind of error do you think? and work is held by which force?
Daniela
I am now in this group
smart
theory,laws,principles and what-a-view are not defined. why? you
A simple pendulum is used in a physics laboratory experiment to obtain an experimental value for the gravitational acceleration, g . A student measures the length of the pendulum to be 0.510 meters, displaces it 10 o from the equilibrium position, and releases it. Using a s
so what question are you passing across... sir?
Olalekan
Two masses of 2 kg and 4 kg are held with a compressed spring between them. If the masses are released, the spring will push them away from each other. If the smaller mass moves off with a velocity of 6m/s, what is the stored energy in the spring when it is compressed?
54 joule
babar
how?
rakesh
Reduce that two body problem into one body problem. Apply potential and k. E formula to get total energy of the system
rakesh
i dont think dere is any potential energy... by d virtue of no height present
Olalekan
there is compressed energy,dats only potential energy na?
rakesh
yes.. but... how will u approach that question without The Height in the question?
Olalekan
Can you explain how you get 54J?
Emmanuel
Because mine is 36J
Emmanuel
got 36J too
Douglas
OK the answer is 54J Babar is correct
Emmanuel
Conservation of Momentum
Emmanuel
woow i see.. can you give the formula for this
joshua
Two masses of 2 kg and 4 kg are held with a compressed spring between them. If the masses are released, the spring will push them away from each other. If the smaller mass moves off with a velocity of 6m/s, what is the stored energy in the spring when it is compressed? Asume there is no external force.
Emmanuel
Inuwa
By using the Quotient Rule dy/dx = 3y/(x +y)²
Emmanuel
3y/(x+y)²
Emmanuel
may be by using MC^2=MC^2 and Total energy=kinetic energy +potential energy so 1st find kinetic energy and den find potential energy which is stored energy
rakesh
i think i m correct
rakesh
But how?
Emmanuel
3y/(x+y)²
Douglas
what's the big bang?
yes what is it?
LamaBbake
it is the explanation of how the universe began
Zainab
yes
Ana
explain
Chinagorom
in
Chinagorom
it is a theory on how the universe began. to understand more I would suggest researching the topic online.
david
thanks guys
kwame
the Big Bang is actually ironic name given by a skeptic( at the time) common misconception is that there was some explosion when actually it's the phenomenon of the start of our continuous expansion of the universe. Brilliant
Shii
we all know E=MC^2 in this equation the mass can be converted in to energy and energy converted in to mass then i have studied the laws of energy and mass that these quantities are consvered then how it can be possible that mass converted energy ?. plz reply me with ans
A.d
hello
Gold
yes
bilal
if a force of 12N is applied to load of 200g what us the work done
We can seek accelation first
Nancy
we are given f=12 m=200g which is 0.2kg now from 2nd law of newton a= f/m=60m/s*2 work done=force applied x displacement cos (theta) w= 12x60 =720nm/s*2
Mudang
this very interesting question very complicated for me, í need urgent help. 1,two buses A and B travel along the same road in the same direction from Harper city (asume They both started from the same point) to Monrovia. if bus A maintains a Speedy of 60km/h and bus B a Speedy of 75km/h, how many
mohammed
hours Will it take bus B to overtake bus A assuming bus B starts One hour after bus A started. what is the distance travelled by the buses when They meet?.
mohammed
pls í need help
mohammed
4000 work is done
Ana
speed=distance /time distance=speed/time
Ana
now use this formula
Ana
Julius
great Mudang
Kossi
babar
hey mudang there is a product of force and acceleration not force and displacement
babar
@Mohammed answer is 0.8hours or 48mins
Douglas
nice
A.d
its not possible
Olalekan
í want the working procedure
mohammed
the answer is given but how Will One arrive at it. the answers are 4hours and 300m.
mohammed
physics is the science that studies the non living nature
ancient greek language physis = nature
isidor
what is phyacs
if i am going to start studying physics where should i start?
I think from kinematics
Nancy
You can find physics books at the library or online. That's how I started.
Chelsea
And yes, kinematics is usually where you can begin.
Chelsea
study basic algebra and calculus and can start from classical mechanics
Mudang
yes think so but dimension is the best starting point
Obed