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  • Understand the relationship between force, mass and acceleration.
  • Study the turning effect of force.
  • Study the analogy between force and torque, mass and moment of inertia, and linear acceleration and angular acceleration.

If you have ever spun a bike wheel or pushed a merry-go-round, you know that force is needed to change angular velocity as seen in [link] . In fact, your intuition is reliable in predicting many of the factors that are involved. For example, we know that a door opens slowly if we push too close to its hinges. Furthermore, we know that the more massive the door, the more slowly it opens. The first example implies that the farther the force is applied from the pivot, the greater the angular acceleration; another implication is that angular acceleration is inversely proportional to mass. These relationships should seem very similar to the familiar relationships among force, mass, and acceleration embodied in Newton’s second law of motion. There are, in fact, precise rotational analogs to both force and mass.

The given figure shows a bike tire being pulled by a hand with a force F backward indicated by a red horizontal arrow that produces an angular acceleration alpha indicated by a curved yellow arrow in counter-clockwise direction.
Force is required to spin the bike wheel. The greater the force, the greater the angular acceleration produced. The more massive the wheel, the smaller the angular acceleration. If you push on a spoke closer to the axle, the angular acceleration will be smaller.

To develop the precise relationship among force, mass, radius, and angular acceleration, consider what happens if we exert a force F size 12{F} {} on a point mass m size 12{m} {} that is at a distance r size 12{r} {} from a pivot point, as shown in [link] . Because the force is perpendicular to r size 12{r} {} , an acceleration a = F m size 12{a= { {F} over {m} } } {} is obtained in the direction of F size 12{F} {} . We can rearrange this equation such that F = ma size 12{F= ital "ma"} {} and then look for ways to relate this expression to expressions for rotational quantities. We note that a = size 12{a=rα} {} , and we substitute this expression into F = ma size 12{F= ital "ma"} {} , yielding

F = mr α . size 12{F= ital "mr"α"."} {}

Recall that torque    is the turning effectiveness of a force. In this case, because F size 12{"F"} {} is perpendicular to r size 12{r} {} , torque is simply τ = Fr size 12{τ=rα} {} . So, if we multiply both sides of the equation above by r size 12{r} {} , we get torque on the left-hand side. That is,

rF = mr 2 α size 12{ ital "rF"= ital "mr" rSup { size 8{2} } α} {}

or

τ = mr 2 α. size 12{τ= ital "mr" rSup { size 8{2} } α.} {}

This last equation is the rotational analog of Newton’s second law ( F = ma size 12{F= ital "ma"} {} ), where torque is analogous to force, angular acceleration is analogous to translational acceleration, and mr 2 size 12{ ital "mr" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} is analogous to mass (or inertia). The quantity mr 2 size 12{ ital "mr" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} is called the rotational inertia    or moment of inertia    of a point mass m size 12{m} {} a distance r size 12{r} {} from the center of rotation.

The given figure shows an object of mass m, kept on a horizontal frictionless table, attached to a pivot point, which is in the center of the table, by a cord that supplies centripetal force. A force F is applied to the object perpendicular to the radius r, which is indicated by a red arrow tangential to the circle, causing the object to move in counterclockwise direcion.
An object is supported by a horizontal frictionless table and is attached to a pivot point by a cord that supplies centripetal force. A force F size 12{F} {} is applied to the object perpendicular to the radius r size 12{r} {} , causing it to accelerate about the pivot point. The force is kept perpendicular to r size 12{r} {} .

Making connections: rotational motion dynamics

Dynamics for rotational motion is completely analogous to linear or translational dynamics. Dynamics is concerned with force and mass and their effects on motion. For rotational motion, we will find direct analogs to force and mass that behave just as we would expect from our earlier experiences.

Questions & Answers

explain how a body becomes electrically charged based on the presence of charged particles
Kym Reply
induction
babar
induction
DEMGUE
definitely by induction
Raymond
induction
Raymond
what are the calculations of Newton's third law of motiow
Murtala Reply
what is dark matter
apex Reply
(in some cosmological theories) non-luminous material which is postulated to exist in space and which could take either of two forms: weakly interacting particles ( cold dark matter ) or high-energy randomly moving particles created soon after the Big Bang ( hot dark matter ).
Usman
if the mass of a trolley is 0.1kg. calculate the weight of plasticine that is needed to compensate friction. (take g=10m/s and u=0.2)
Declan Reply
what is a galaxy
Maduka Reply
what isflow rate of volume
Abcd Reply
flow rate is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time;
Rev
flow rate or discharge represnts the flow passing in unit volume per unit time
bhat
When two charges q1 and q2 are 6 and 5 coulomb what is ratio of force
Mian Reply
When reducing the mass of a racing bike, the greatest benefit is realized from reducing the mass of the tires and wheel rims. Why does this allow a racer to achieve greater accelerations than would an identical reduction in the mass of the bicycle’s frame?
bimo Reply
is that the answer
nehemiah
why is it proportional
nehemiah Reply
i don't know
Adah
y
nehemiah
what are the relationship between distance and displacement
Usman Reply
They are interchangeable.
Shii
Distance is scalar, displacement is vector because it must involve a direction as well as a magnitude. distance is the measurement of where you are and where you were displacement is a measurement of the change in position
Shii
Thanks a lot
Usman
I'm beginner in physics so I can't reason why v=u+at change to v2=u2+2as and vice versa
Usman
what is kinematics
praveen
kinematics is study of motion without considering the causes of the motion
Theo
The study of motion without considering the cause 0f it
Usman
why electrons close to the nucleus have less energy and why do electrons far from the nucleus have more energy
Theo
thank you frds
praveen
plz what is the third law of thermodynamics
Chidera Reply
third law of thermodynamics states that at 0k the particles will collalse its also known as death of universe it was framed at that time when it waa nt posible to reach 0k but it was proved wrong
bhat
I have not try that experiment but I think it will magnet....
Rev Reply
Hey Rev. it will
Jeff
I do think so, it will
Chidera
yes it will
lasisi
If a magnet is in a pool of water, would it be able to have a magnetic field?.
Stella Reply
yes Stella it would
Jeff
formula for electric current
Chizzy Reply
what is that about pleace
Fokoua
what are you given?
Kudzy
what is current
Fokoua
I=q/t
saifullahi
Current is the flow of electric charge per unit time.
saifullahi
What are semi conductors
saifullahi
materials that allows charge to flow at varying conditions, temperature for instance.
Mokua
these are materials which have electrical conductivity greater than the insulators but less than metal, in these materials energy band Gap is very narrow as compared to insulators
Sunil
materials that allows charge to flow at varying conditions, temperature for instance.
Obasi
wao so awesome
Fokoua
At what point in the oscillation of beam will a body leave it?
Atambiri
what is gravitational force
Adah
what is meant by the term law
Fahd Reply
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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