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ε l = vB . size 12{ { {ε} over {l} } = ital "vB" "." } {}

Solving this for the Hall emf yields

ε = Blv ( B , v , and l , mutually perpendicular ) , size 12{ε= ital "Blv"``` \( B,`v,`"and"`l,`"mutually perpendicular" \) ,} {}

where ε size 12{ε} {} is the Hall effect voltage across a conductor of width l size 12{l} {} through which charges move at a speed v size 12{v} {} .

Diagram showing an electron moving to the left in a three-dimensional rectangular space with velocity v. The magnetic field is oriented out of the page. The electric field is down. The electric force on the charge is up while the magnetic force on the charge is down. An illustration of the right hand rule shows the thumb pointing to the left with v, the fingers out of the page with B, and the force on a positive charge up and away from the palm.
The Hall emf ε size 12{ε} {} produces an electric force that balances the magnetic force on the moving charges. The magnetic force produces charge separation, which builds up until it is balanced by the electric force, an equilibrium that is quickly reached.

One of the most common uses of the Hall effect is in the measurement of magnetic field strength B size 12{B} {} . Such devices, called Hall probes , can be made very small, allowing fine position mapping. Hall probes can also be made very accurate, usually accomplished by careful calibration. Another application of the Hall effect is to measure fluid flow in any fluid that has free charges (most do). (See [link] .) A magnetic field applied perpendicular to the flow direction produces a Hall emf ε size 12{ε} {} as shown. Note that the sign of ε size 12{ε} {} depends not on the sign of the charges, but only on the directions of B size 12{B} {} and v size 12{v} {} . The magnitude of the Hall emf is ε = Blv size 12{ε= ital "Blv"} {} , where l size 12{l} {} is the pipe diameter, so that the average velocity v size 12{v} {} can be determined from ε size 12{ε} {} providing the other factors are known.

Diagram showing a tube with diameter l with one end between the north and south poles of a magnet. The charges are moving with velocity v within the tube and out of the page. The magnetic field B is oriented across the tube, from the north to the south pole of the magnet. The force on the charges is up for positive charges and down for negative charges. e m f = B l v.
The Hall effect can be used to measure fluid flow in any fluid having free charges, such as blood. The Hall emf ε size 12{ε} {} is measured across the tube perpendicular to the applied magnetic field and is proportional to the average velocity v size 12{v} {} .

Calculating the hall emf: hall effect for blood flow

A Hall effect flow probe is placed on an artery, applying a 0.100-T magnetic field across it, in a setup similar to that in [link] . What is the Hall emf, given the vessel’s inside diameter is 4.00 mm and the average blood velocity is 20.0 cm/s?

Strategy

Because B size 12{B} {} , v size 12{v} {} , and l size 12{l} {} are mutually perpendicular, the equation ε = Blv size 12{ε= ital "Blv"} {} can be used to find ε size 12{ε} {} .

Solution

Entering the given values for B size 12{B} {} , v size 12{v} {} , and l size 12{l} {} gives

ε = Blv = 0.100 T 4 . 00 × 10 3 m 0 .200 m/s = 80.0 μV alignl { stack { size 12{ε= ital "Blv"= left (0 "." "100"`T right ) left (4 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } `m right ) left (0 "." "200"`"m/s" right )} {} # ="80" "." 0`"μV" {}} } {}

Discussion

This is the average voltage output. Instantaneous voltage varies with pulsating blood flow. The voltage is small in this type of measurement. ε size 12{ε} {} is particularly difficult to measure, because there are voltages associated with heart action (ECG voltages) that are on the order of millivolts. In practice, this difficulty is overcome by applying an AC magnetic field, so that the Hall emf is AC with the same frequency. An amplifier can be very selective in picking out only the appropriate frequency, eliminating signals and noise at other frequencies.

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Section summary

  • The Hall effect is the creation of voltage ε size 12{ε} {} , known as the Hall emf, across a current-carrying conductor by a magnetic field.
  • The Hall emf is given by
    ε = Blv ( B , v , and l , mutually perpendicular ) size 12{ε= ital "Blv"``` \( B,`v,`"and"`l,`"mutually perpendicular" \) } {}
    for a conductor of width l size 12{l} {} through which charges move at a speed v size 12{v} {} .

Conceptual questions

Discuss how the Hall effect could be used to obtain information on free charge density in a conductor. (Hint: Consider how drift velocity and current are related.)

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Problems&Exercises

A large water main is 2.50 m in diameter and the average water velocity is 6.00 m/s. Find the Hall voltage produced if the pipe runs perpendicular to the Earth’s 5 . 00 × 10 5 -T size 12{5 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 5} } "-T"} {} field.

7 . 50 × 10 4 V

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What Hall voltage is produced by a 0.200-T field applied across a 2.60-cm-diameter aorta when blood velocity is 60.0 cm/s?

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(a) What is the speed of a supersonic aircraft with a 17.0-m wingspan, if it experiences a 1.60-V Hall voltage between its wing tips when in level flight over the north magnetic pole, where the Earth’s field strength is 8 . 00 × 10 5 T? size 12{8 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 5} } `"T?"} {} (b) Explain why very little current flows as a result of this Hall voltage.

(a) 1.18 × 10 3 m/s

(b) Once established, the Hall emf pushes charges one direction and the magnetic force acts in the opposite direction resulting in no net force on the charges. Therefore, no current flows in the direction of the Hall emf. This is the same as in a current-carrying conductor—current does not flow in the direction of the Hall emf.

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A nonmechanical water meter could utilize the Hall effect by applying a magnetic field across a metal pipe and measuring the Hall voltage produced. What is the average fluid velocity in a 3.00-cm-diameter pipe, if a 0.500-T field across it creates a 60.0-mV Hall voltage?

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Calculate the Hall voltage induced on a patient’s heart while being scanned by an MRI unit. Approximate the conducting path on the heart wall by a wire 7.50 cm long that moves at 10.0 cm/s perpendicular to a 1.50-T magnetic field.

11.3 mV

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A Hall probe calibrated to read 1 . 00 μV size 12{1 "." "00"`"μV"} {} when placed in a 2.00-T field is placed in a 0.150-T field. What is its output voltage?

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Using information in [link] , what would the Hall voltage be if a 2.00-T field is applied across a 10-gauge copper wire (2.588 mm in diameter) carrying a 20.0-A current?

1. 16 μV size 12{1 "." "47"`"μV"} {}

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Show that the Hall voltage across wires made of the same material, carrying identical currents, and subjected to the same magnetic field is inversely proportional to their diameters. (Hint: Consider how drift velocity depends on wire diameter.)

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A patient with a pacemaker is mistakenly being scanned for an MRI image. A 10.0-cm-long section of pacemaker wire moves at a speed of 10.0 cm/s perpendicular to the MRI unit’s magnetic field and a 20.0-mV Hall voltage is induced. What is the magnetic field strength?

2.00 T

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Questions & Answers

What is conductivity
Saud Reply
It is the ease with which electrical charges or heat can be transmitted through a material or a solution.
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how to find magnitude and direction
Arjune Reply
how to caclculate for speed
Arjune
derivation of ohms law
Kazeem Reply
derivation of resistance
Kazeem
R=v/I where R=resistor, v=voltage, I=current
Kazeem
magnitude
Arjune
A puck is moving on an air hockey table. Relative to an x, y coordinate system at time t 0 s, the x components of the puck’s ini￾tial velocity and acceleration are v0x 1.0 m/s and ax 2.0 m/s2 . The y components of the puck’s initial velocity and acceleration are v0y 2.0 m/s and ay 2.0
Arjune
Electric current is the flow of electrons
Kelly Reply
is there really flow of electrons exist?
babar
Yes It exists
Cffrrcvccgg
explain plz how electrons flow
babar
if electron flows from where first come and end the first one
babar
an electron will flow accross a conductor because or when it posseses kinectic energy
Cffrrcvccgg
electron can not flow jist trasmit electrical energy
ghulam
free electrons of conductor
ankita
electric means the flow heat current.
Serah Reply
electric means the flow of heat current in a circuit.
Serah
What is electric
Manasseh Reply
electric means?
ghulam
electric means the flow of heat current in a circuit.
Serah
a boy cycles continuously through a distance of 1.0km in 5minutes. calculate his average speed in ms-1(meter per second). how do I solve this
Jenny Reply
speed = distance/time be sure to convert the km to m and minutes to seconds check my utube video "mathwithmrv speed"
PhysicswithMrV
d=1.0km÷1000=0.001 t=5×60=300s s=d\t s=0.001/300=0.0000033m\s
Serah
A puck is moving on an air hockey table. Relative to an x, y coordinate system at time t 0 s, the x components of the puck’s ini￾tial velocity and acceleration are v0x 1.0 m/s and ax 2.0 m/s2 . The y components of the puck’s initial velocity and acceleration are v0y 2.0 m/s and ay 2.0
Arjune
why we cannot use DC instead of AC in a transformer
kusshaf Reply
becuse the d .c cannot travel for long distance trnsmission
ghulam
what is physics
Chiwetalu Reply
branch of science which deals with matter energy and their relationship between them
ghulam
Life science
the
what is heat and temperature
Kazeem Reply
how does sound affect temperature
Clement Reply
sound is directly proportional to the temperature.
juny
how to solve wave question
Wisdom Reply
I would like to know how I am not at all smart when it comes to math. please explain so I can understand. sincerly
Emma
Just know d relationship btw 1)wave length 2)frequency and velocity
Talhatu
First of all, you are smart and you will get it👍🏽... v = f × wavelength see my youtube channel: "mathwithmrv" if you want to know how to rearrange equations using the balance method
PhysicswithMrV
nice self promotion though xD
Beatrax
thanks dear
Chuks
hi pls help me with this question A ball is projected vertically upwards from the top of a tower 60m high with a velocity of 30ms1.what is the maximum height above the ground level?how long does it take to reach the ground level?
mahmoud
what is scalar quantities
babatunde
scaler quantity are quanties that have only direction and no magnitude
Natsu
ice Point
babatunde
please guys help, what is the difference between concave lens and convex lens
Vincent Reply
convex lens brings rays of light to a focus while concave diverges rays of light
Christian
for mmHg to kPa yes
Matthew
it depends on the size
Matthew Reply
please what is concave lens
Vincent
a lens which diverge the ray of light
rinzuala
concave diverges light
Matthew
thank you guys
Vincent
A diverging lens
Yusuf
What is isotope
Yusuf
each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, and hence differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties; in particular, a radioactive form of an element. "some elements have only one stable isotope
Karthi
what is wire wound resistors?
Naveedkhan Reply
Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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